მთავარი English Vocabulary in Use - Pre-Intermediate and Intermediate
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English Vocabulary in Use Pre-Intermediate and Intermediate Book with Answers_Vocabulary Reference and Practice, 4th-2017_(Stuart Redman).pdf
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University Printing House, Cambridge cb2 8bs, United Kingdom One Liberty Plaza, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10006, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia 4843/24, 2nd Floor, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, Delhi –110002, India 79 Anson Road, #06–04/06, Singapore 079906 Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/elt © Cambridge University Press 2017 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 1997 Fourth edition A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-131662831-7 Edition with answers and ebook ISBN 978-131663171-3 Edition with answers ISBN 978-131663172-0 ebook Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. Contents Thanks Introduction 29 30 Learning Education and study 31 Classroom language 32 School education 33 Studying English and taking exams 34 University education 1 2 3 4 Learning vocabulary Keeping a vocabulary notebook Using a dictionary English language words The world around us 5 6 7 8 Country, nationality and language The physical world Weather Animals and insects People 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 The body and movement Describin; g appearance Describing character Feelings Family and friends Growing up Romance, marriage and divorce Daily life 16 Daily routines 17 The place where you live 18 Around the home 19 Money 20 Health 21 Clothes 22 Fashion and buying clothes 23 Shopping 24 Food 25 Cooking 26 City life 27 Life in the country 28 Transport On the road Notices and warnings Work and business 35 Jobs 36 Talking about your work 37 Making a career 38 Working in an office 39 Running a company 40 Business and finance Leisure and entertainment 41 Sport and leisure 42 Competitive sport 43 Books and films 44 Music 45 Special events Tourism 46 Travel bookings 47 Air travel 48 Hotels and restaurants 49 Cafés 50 Sightseeing holidays 51 Holidays by the sea Communication and technology 52 Newspapers and television 53 Phoning and texting 54 Computers 55 Email and the Internet English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 3 Social issues 56 Crime 57 Politics 58 Climate change 59 War and violence Key verbs 81 Make, do and take: Concepts 60 Time 61 Numbers 62 Distance, dimensions and size 63 Objects, materials, shapes 84 85 and colour 64 Containers and quantities Functional language 65 Apologies, excuses and thanks 66 Requests, permission and suggestions 67 Opinions, agreeing and disagreeing 68 Likes, dislikes, attitudes and preferences 69 Greetings, farewells and special expressions Word formation 70 Prefixes: changing meaning 71 Suffixes: forming nouns 72 Suffixes: forming adjectives 73 Compound nouns Phrase building 74 Word partners 75 Fixed phrases 76 Fixed phrases in conversation 77 Verb or adjective + preposition 78 Prepositional phrases 79 Phrasal verbs 1: form and meaning 80 Phrasal verbs 2: grammar uses and phrases 82 83 Get: uses, phrases and phrasal verbs Go: meanings and expressions The senses Words and grammar 86 Uncountable nouns 87 Verb constructions 1 88 Verb constructions 2 89 Adjectives 90 Prepositions: place and movement 91 Adverbs Connecting and linking 92 Time and sequence 93 Addition and contrast 94 Reason, purpose, result, condition Style and register 95 Formal and informal English 96 Completing forms and CVs 97 Writing an essay 98 Formal letters and emails 99 Informal emails and messages 100 Abbreviations Answer key Phonemic symbols Index Acknowledgements How to use the ebook ██████████ and style 4 Key verbs: give, keep and miss English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate Thanks Sabina Ostrowska wrote two new units for the Fourth Edition: Unit 46, Travel Bookings and Unit 49, Cafés. The publishers would like to thank Sabina for her contribution to this edition. English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 5 Introduction To the student This book will help you learn more than 2,000 words and phrases, and you can use it without a teacher. There are 100 units in the book. You can study them in any order, but the first four units have information about vocabulary that will help you with your learning. Here is what the pages look like: The left-hand page presents the new vocabulary. Pictures and diagrams show the meaning of some words. New vocabulary is in bold. Example sentences help you to understand new words. The right-hand page practises the new vocabulary. There is an example in each exercise to help you. There is space for you to write your answers. Over to you is a chance for you to use the new words to write about yourself, your life and your country. After you do the exercises, you can check your answers in the Answer key at the back of the book. You will also find possible answers for most of the Over to you exercises. The Index at the back of the book has all the new words and phrases from the units, with a phonemic transcription to help you with pronunciation. If you have the edition with the ebook, you can listen to the pronunciation of all the new vocabulary, and there are more practice exercises as well. see p262 for more information about the ebook. It is a good idea to have a dictionary when you use the book. sometimes you may want a bilingual dictionary, so you can find a translation; sometimes the book asks you to use an English dictionary for an exercise. You also need a notebook when you are studying. The study units 1–4 in this book will give you ideas and information to help you to use your notebook and become a better learner. I hope you enjoy using this book. 6 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate To the teacher This book can be used in class or for self-study. It is intended for learners at the upper A2 level and B1 level on the Council of Europe scale, and teaches more than 2,000 words and phrases. The vocabulary is organised around common everyday topics, but also contains units on different aspects of language such as phrasal verbs, uncountable nouns and link words and phrases. These units provide key information about lexis, but also help to ensure that learners are exposed to the most important vocabulary for their level. The first four units are dedicated to aspects of vocabulary learning such as record keeping and dictionary use. The book has been written so that units can be studied in any order, but I recommend you look at these four study units first, as they provide learners with important advice about vocabulary learning in general. Throughout the book, vocabulary items have been chosen for their usefulness in a wide range of everyday situations, and this task has been made easier by having access to the English Profile (EP). Forming part of a large research programme sponsored by the Council of Europe, the EP helps teachers and students identify the words or phrases that a learner can be expected to know at each level of the Common European Framework. The words and phrases have mainly been selected using the Cambridge Learner Corpus, examination wordlists and classroom materials, and in this book the main focus is on words and phrases at the upper end of the A2 level and across the B1 level. Much of the new vocabulary (on average about 25 items per unit) is presented through different types of text, and then explained immediately after the item appears, or in a separate glossary below the text; some words are presented in tables or lists, and contextualised in sentence examples; some of the new vocabulary is presented in pictures and diagrams. The new vocabulary is then practised on the right-hand pages through a wide range of exercise types. These pages generally progress from easier to more difficult exercises, with items often tested receptively first, e.g. through a matching or grouping exercise, before moving on to more challenging productive exercises such as gap-fill texts or sentence transformations. In many units, the final exercise is called Over to you. This indicates a personalised exercise, in which learners have an opportunity to use some of the new vocabulary to talk about themselves, their lives and their country, and sometimes to express their own personal opinions. These make ideal classroom speaking activities for pairs or groups, but many of the exercises on the right-hand page can be adapted for speaking practice. For example, where there are short question and answer dialogues, students can first read the dialogues out loud, then one student can ask the questions, and their partner has to respond appropriately using target vocabulary from the unit, but without referring to the book. There is a comprehensive Answer key at the back of the book, as well as an Index of all the vocabulary taught with a phonemic pronunciation guide and a unit reference to where each item appears. Find more resources for teachers at www.cambridge.org/elt/inuse We hope you enjoy using this new edition. English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 7 Study unit 1 A Learning vocabulary Using this book It’s a good idea to have a routine when you use this book. [something you do often and usually in the same way] For example: • a weekly routine when you study a new unit for at least [not less than] 30–45 minutes; • a daily routine when you revise that unit. [study it again] You may only need to revise for five or ten minutes each time. 1.1 Over to you Write your answers. 1 How often can you spend at least half an hour or forty- five minutes on a unit? 2 How often can you revise? How much time can you spend when you revise? Where will you do it? B Studying a new unit When you are studying a unit for the first time, you need to be active when you are learning. • With a new word or phrase, say it aloud [speak it so you can hear it], and repeat it to yourself silently [in your head, not speaking]. If you have the eBook that goes with the book, use it to • • • • 1.2 check the pronunciation. Use a highlighter pen to mark words you think are important or difficult. Write down new words and phrases in your notebook. (See Unit 2 for more information.) Always try to write an example sentence for new words. You can choose an example from this book or a dictionary, but an example from your own life will often help you to remember a word, e.g. I shared a flat with an Australian girl when I was in London last year. Do exercises in pencil, then you can rub them out (using a rubber) and do them again later. This is a good way to revise vocabulary. Over to you Write your answers. 1 Which of these things do you do now when you are learning vocabulary? 2 What will you do in the future? C Revising a unit When you are revising a unit one or two days later, it is also important to be as active as possible. • Test yourself, e.g. look at a word and cover the meaning. Can you remember what the meaning is? If you can’t, check the meaning, then come back to the word in five minutes’ time and test yourself again. • Look at what you wrote in your notebook when you first studied the unit. Is there any new information you want to add, e.g. something about the pronunciation, or a common word partner? (See Unit 2.) • Diagrams may help you to organise some of the vocabulary differently, and help you to remember it. 8 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate Who took my pen? 1.3 Let’s take a break now. D unit Write your answers. 1 Do you revise vocabulary that you study? If so, how often? take I took notes during the lecture. Over to you 1 Study What size shoes do you take? 2 Will you try to revise more often in the future? If so, will you use some of the ideas above? Expanding* your vocabulary • When you learn a word, e.g. dirty, think of synonyms (syn) [words with a similar meaning] or opposites (opp) in your language. Look them up in a bilingual dictionary to find the English words, then look up the English words in an English dictionary to check the meaning. From this, you will find that the opposite of dirty is clean, and you may also find filthy [very dirty]. * making something bigger 1.4 Using this method, find opposites for the words in bold. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 My room is very clean. opp dirty It’s a permanent job. opp He was kind to all of his animals. opp Babies have very soft, smooth skin. opp Where’s the entrance? opp Was the bird dead? opp Did they accept the invitation? opp • Building word families (see Units 70–72) will also help to expand your vocabulary. From a noun, verb or adjective, you can often find related words in the dictionary with a similar meaning. So, you can often learn two or three words, and not just one, e.g. argue v = have an angry discussion; n = argument. 1.5 Use a dictionary to find the related parts of speech for the words in bold. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 She gave me some advice. verb advise We mustn’t argue. noun I will have to revise this unit. noun Is there a choice? verb I want to expand my vocabulary. noun The two boys are very different. noun They need to communicate more. noun verb adj • Try to read and listen to English as much as possible. The more you read and listen, the more you will learn. When you read, try to: – Highlight or underline interesting new words. – Highlight words if they are familiar but you can’t remember the meaning. • There is a lot of spoken English on the Internet which you can play again and again. Try to make a note of interesting words and look up the meaning. 1.6 Over to you Now choose a unit that interests you. Study the left-hand page, then do the exercises in pencil. Wait for at least 24 hours, revise the unit, then answer these questions. 1 How many answers did you get right the first time? 2 How many answers did you get right the second time? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 9 Study unit 2 A Keeping a vocabulary notebook What do you do? This is what some students do. cup saucer mug RAFAEL I write down new English words and phrases in my notebook, and next to each one I write a Spanish translation. I usually write down if a word is a noun, verb, adjective, and so on. KAZUO I sometimes write a word in phonemics because English pronunciation is very difficult for me. But my notebook is a mess [nothing is in a good order; syn untidy]. I like to draw pictures. EUN I sometimes make a note of new words in my notebook, but I often forget [don’t remember]. I usually write a translation, and sometimes I write example sentences as well. ANDREY I’ve got a notebook. I don’t use it much but when I do, I try and list words by topic, so I put all the animals together, and all the clothes words together, and so on. I find it’s easier to remember the words this way. DONATA I note down new words and phrases. Sometimes I translate them into Polish, and sometimes I write an explanation [a description of what something means] in English if it is not difficult. For example: kitten – a very young cat B Tips for your notebook A tip is a piece of advice to help you. Here are some tips for your notebook. • Put words from one topic in the same place, e.g. food in one place, clothes in another, etc. Don’t mix them up [put them together with no order]. You can also have grammar topics, e.g. ‘uncountable • • • • • 10 nouns’, or a page for words that all have a connection, e.g. words and phrases that were all in a story you read in English. Some words and phrases will go in more than one topic. If you can’t find a topic for a new word or phrase, e.g. useful or in particular, put them in a different place in your notebook, e.g. a page for each day or each week, or perhaps one page for every English lesson you have. Write the date clearly at the top, e.g. Monday 14th May. When you write down new vocabulary, write a translation if it is necessary [you need it; opp unnecessary], but also write the meaning in English if it is possible, or draw pictures. If possible, add synonyms, opposites, other parts of speech, etc. (See Unit 1.) awful adj = terrible (syn dreadful) enjoy v = like something and get pleasure from it n = enjoyment adj = enjoyable Example sentences help you with the grammar of a word, or with word partners (collocations). I enjoy living in a big city. (NOT I enjoy to live in a big city.) (See Units 87–8.) I spent two weeks in Rome. (NOT I passed two weeks in Rome. You spend time in a place.) (See Unit 74.) Remember, words often have more than one meaning that you need to know, e.g. a tip is also money that you give, for example, to a waiter for serving you in a restaurant. English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 2 Exercises 2.1 Study unit Organise the words into the topics below. One word can go in two different topics. Use a dictionary to help you. diet raw branch lay the table count v dig v ground flour add up leaf minus butcher thousand frozen zero butterfly food garden numbers diet 2.2 Explain these words in English, or draw a picture, or if you think an explanation is too difficult and a drawing is not possible, write a translation instead. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2.3 What information could you include with these words? The answers are all on the opposite page. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2.4 raw not cooked dig butcher leaf flour lay the table add up minus forget opposite – remember awful necessary translate tip enjoy Over to you Answer the questions. If possible, compare your answers with someone else. 1 Look again at what the students said on the opposite page. What are the good things that they do? Underline them. 2 Do you do all of these things? 3 Is there anything you don’t do now, but will do in the future? 4 At the moment, which person’s notebook is most like your notebook? 5 What are the most useful tips on the opposite page for you? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 11 Study unit 3 Using a dictionary A What dictionaries do I need? B Information in dictionaries A bilingual dictionary [using two languages] is easy for you to understand, and quick and easy to use. A dictionary in English will give you reading practice in English and many more examples of how words are used. If possible, use both. These are good dictionaries in English for your level, and most of them are available online: Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary Oxford Wordpower Dictionary Longman Active Study Dictionary Macmillan Essential Dictionary If you look up a word [find a word in a dictionary] using the Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary, the information is shown like this: part of speech (= noun) pronunciation using phonemic symbols (see page 247) fun1 1 enjoyment or pleasure, or something 2 that gives you enjoyment or pleasure a definition explains the meaning She’s great fun to be with. Have fun! (= enjoy yourself) It’s no fun having to work late every night. bold italics show common word partners (see Unit 74) 3.1 always allways realy unfortunatly expecially cloths make fun of sb/sth to make a joke about someone or something in an unkind way. fixed phrases using the word are shown in bold (see Units 75–6) The other children at school used to make fun of his hair. examples are in italics 6 7 8 9 10 confortable accomodation beautifull unbeleivable neccesary In the word island /ˈaɪlənd/, the letter ‘s’ is silent (not pronounced). Use your dictionary to find the silent letters in these words. 1 knee C 3 for fun/for the fun of it for pleasure and not for any other reason [U] tells you that fun is uncountable (see Unit 86) Correct the spelling mistakes. Use a dictionary to check your answers. 1 2 3 4 5 3.2 /fʌn/ noun [u] 2 comb 3 castle 4 salmon 5 receipt Defining words ‘Defining words’ are words that dictionaries use when they define [explain] the words in the dictionary. Some of these are quite common. emphasise [give something more attention and importance], e.g. My teacher has always emphasised the importance of writing down new words in a notebook. relating to or connected to/with [having a relationship with someone or something], e.g. musical is connected with / related to music amount [how much there is of something], e.g. £5 million is a large amount of money. official [done by the government or someone in authority], e.g. A passport is an official document. behave [do or say things in a particular way], e.g. People can behave strangely when they’re nervous. 12 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 3 Exercises 3.3 Study unit Complete the dictionary definitions using words from the box. connected with emphasise relating to behave official amount 1 2 3 4 industry industrial / ɪnˈdʌstriəl/ 1 adjective connected with sum /sʌm/ noun [C] an of money pretend /prɪˈtend/ verb [I,T] to as if something is true when it is not certificate /səˈtɪfɪkət/ noun [C] an document that gives details to show something is true 5 not at all /nɒt ət ɔːl/ used instead of ‘no’ or ‘not’ to what you are saying: I’m not at all happy about it 6 legal /ˈliːgəl/ adjective the law D Using a dictionary • When you use a dictionary to check the meaning of a word, put a tick (✓) next to it. Each time you return to a page with a tick, see [find out] if you remember the word. • When you meet a new word or phrase in a text, first try to guess the meaning [try to think of the meaning when you don’t know it]. Then, use a dictionary to see if your guess was correct. • Don’t just read the dictionary definition. Example phrases and sentences show you how a word or phrase is used, and they help you to understand the meaning more clearly. • If you look up a word in a bilingual dictionary and get two or three different translations, check these words in an English dictionary to see which translation is the best one for the situation. • Remember that many words have more than one meaning. The first meaning in the dictionary is not always the one you want. You may need to read through the different meanings. 3.4 Answer the questions, and use an English dictionary to check the answers. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3.5 It’s a very young dog. What does puppy mean? Is the correct spelling organize or organise? What part of speech is extremely? What kind of noun is advice? What preposition follows the verb rely? Look up friend, and then the words in bold that are often used with it. Can you complete these phrases? She’s an friend; he’s my friend; you friends with people. Match the sentences on the right with the different meanings of post on the left. post1 1 /pəʊst/ noun System [no plural] UK (US mail) the system for sending letters, parcels, etc Your letter is in the post. I’m sending the documents by post. 2 3 Job [c] formal a job A part-time post. A teaching post. 4 Letters [u] UK (US mail) letters, parcels, etc that you send or receive Pole [c] a long, vertical piece of wood or metal fixed into the ground at one end. Has the post arrived/come yet? I found the dog tied to a post. 1 He’s applied for a post overseas. 2 Did you send the cheque by post? 3 I tied the flag to a post. 4 We haven’t had any post yet. English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 13 Study unit 4 A English language words Parts of speech I have a brown leather chair by the window, and I often sit there in the morning to listen to music. In the sentence above, I is a pronoun; chair, window, morning and music are all nouns; have, sit and listen are verbs; brown and leather are adjectives; often is an adverb; by and to are prepositions; the is a definite article; a is an indefinite article; and is a conjunction or link word. Here are two more examples: We saw an elephant at the zoo yesterday. Elephant and zoo are nouns; saw is a verb; at is a preposition; an is an indefinite article; the is a definite article. It was a cold night, so I walked quickly. Was and walked are verbs; cold is an adjective; night is a noun; quickly is an adverb; so is a link word. B Grammar C Word building D Pronunciation When you are learning vocabulary, you need to know certain things about different words; for example, if nouns are countable, e.g. books, apples, chairs; or uncountable, e.g. information (NOT informations), advice (NOT advices). (See Unit 86.) With verbs, you need to know if they are regular, e.g. work, live, etc; or irregular, e.g. go/went, take/took. You will also need to learn the grammar of phrasal verbs, e.g. take something off, wake up. (See Units 79–80.) You also need to learn certain groups of words as phrases, e.g. at the moment, never mind, see you later. (See Units 75–6.) In the word uncomfortable, un- is a prefix, and -able is a suffix. Other common prefixes include in- and dis-, e.g. incorrect and dislike. Common suffixes include -ment and -ive, e.g. improvement and attractive. (See Units 70–72.) Dictionaries show the pronunciation of a word using phonemic symbols, e.g. book /bʊk/, before /bɪˈfɔː/, cinema /ˈsɪnəmə/. Every word has one or more syllables, e.g. book has one syllable, before has two syllables, cinema has three syllables. It is important to know which syllable to stress, e.g. on before it is the second syllable (be'fore), on cinema it is the first syllable ('cinema). The vertical mark ' shows where the stressed syllable begins. E 14 Punctuation Every sentence must begin with a capital letter and end with a full stop. Some sentences have a comma, which often shows a pause [when you stop reading or speaking for a short time] in a long sentence. Did you also know that a question must end with a question mark? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 4 Exercises 4.1 Study unit Put the words into the correct columns. noun comma phonemic symbol adverb stress question mark syllable preposition full stop adjective parts of speech punctuation pronunciation noun 4.2 There is one word missing in each line of the text. Where does the missing word go? What could it be? What part of speech is it? Last year I went to for my holiday. I spent the first week Seville staying with a couple of friends, and then I a train to Barcelona, where I spent another ten days. It is beautiful city and I had a marvellous time. I stayed in a very hotel right in the centre, but I didn’t mind spending a lot money because it was a wonderful and it was very convenient. My brother was the person who recommended it; he goes Spain a lot and he stays anywhere else. I may go back next year if have enough time. 4.3 What type of verb is break? an irregular verb What does a sentence begin with? What do you put at the end of every sentence? What’s missing here. What shows you there is a pause in the middle of a long sentence? What type of noun is butter? What type of verbs are pick somebody up and grow up? What are full stop and comma examples of? How do dictionaries show the pronunciation of a word? Is the ‘a’ in phrase pronounced the same as can, can’t or late? Mark the stress on each word. How many syllables are there? ' English 2 decide 4.5 Spain (noun) Answer the questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4.4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 informal adjective opposite education syllable pronunciation Look at these words and answer the questions. cheap 1 2 3 4 5 dangerous kind lucky adjectives What part of speech are these words? Can you change the first two words into adverbs? Is the pronunciation of kind like wind (noun) or find (verb)? What prefix do you need to form the opposite of the last two words? What suffix makes a noun from kind? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 15 5 A Country, nationality and language Who speaks what where? country nationality language Australia Australian English Brazil Brazilian Portuguese China Chinese Mandarin (and Cantonese) Egypt Egyptian Arabic France French French Germany German German Greece Greek Greek Israel Israeli Hebrew Italy Italian Italian Japan Japanese Japanese (South) Korea Korean Korean Poland Polish Polish Russia Russian Russian Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian Arabic Spain Spanish Spanish Switzerland Swiss Swiss-German, French, Italian Thailand Thai Thai Turkey Turkish Turkish the UK (United Kingdom)* British English the USA (United States of America) American English *the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) I come from Argentina, so I’m Argentinian and my first language is Spanish. The capital is Buenos Aires, which has a population of more than 10 million people. Common mistakes He’s English. (NOT He’s english.); We ate French food. (NOT We ate France food.) I went to the USA. (NOT I went to USA.) I also visited the UK. (NOT I also visited UK.) B Parts of the world The continents in the world are Europe, Africa, Asia, North America, South America, Australia [Australia and New Zealand] and Antarctica. We also use these terms for different parts of the world: the Middle East (e.g. United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia), the Far East (e.g. Thailand, Japan), the Caribbean (e.g. Jamaica, Barbados), Scandinavia (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland). C The people When we are talking about people from a particular country, we add ‘s’ to nationalities ending in ‘-i’ or ‘-(i)an’, but we need the definite article (the) for most others. Brazilians/Russians Thais/Israelis are … The British / The French The Swiss / The Japanese are … With both groups we can also use the word ‘people’, e.g. Brazilian people, British people, etc. 16 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate . Exercises 5.1 Answer the questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5.2 What nationality are people from Poland? Polish What nationality are people from Thailand? What language is spoken in Spain? Where do people speak Hebrew? Where do people speak Mandarin? What language is spoken in Brazil? What language is spoken in Egypt? What nationality are people from Germany? Write down three countries whose first language is English. Write down three languages spoken in Switzerland. What parts of the world are these countries in? Write the continent, e.g. Europe, or the area, e.g. the Far East. 1 Germany Europe 2 Japan 3 Saudi Arabia 5.3 Underline the main stress in the words in the box, and practise saying them. Use the pronunciation in the index to help you. Brazilian Chinese 5.4 4 Italy 5 Jamaica 6 Argentina Japan Portuguese Egyptian Australia . . . 4 Moscow is the capital of 5 Buenos Aires is the capital of 6 Athens is the capital of . . . Complete the sentences with the name of the people from the country on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5.6 Scandinavia Write the answers. 1 Bangkok is the capital of Thailand .2 Ankara is the capital of 3 Seoul is the capital of 5.5 Arabic Saudi Arabia I’ve worked a lot with the French . I know lots of . We do a lot of business with . I used to know a lot of . I have always found very friendly. People often say that are very reserved. are very organised. I met a lot of on my trip to Moscow. FRANCE GERMANY JAPAN ISRAEL BRAZIL BRITAIN SWITZERLAND RUSSIA Over to you Answer the questions for you, then ask a friend – if possible, someone from a different country – and write their answers. 1 What’s your nationality? 2 What’s the capital city and population of your country? 3 What’s your first language? 4 What other languages do you speak? 5 Which countries have you visited? 6 Which countries would you like to visit? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 17 6 A The physical world Facts DID YOU KNOW...? The KruberaVoronja Cave Two thirds of the surface1 of the Earth2, is covered in, water. The Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal is the longest canal in the world. It is 1,794 kilometres long. El Azizia in Libya is the hottest place in the world, where temperatures of over3 57 °C (57 degrees Celsius) have been recorded. Beijing-Hangshou Grand Canal The coldest place on earth is probably Vostok in Antarctica, which reached a temperature of minus 89 °C. The Krubera-Voronja Cave near the Black Sea coast in Georgia, is the deepest cave in the world. It is over 2000 metres deep. The Angel Falls 1 2 the top or outside part The highest waterfall in the world is the Angel Falls in Venezuela. It is 979 metres high. The Amazon Rainforest is the largest rainforest in the world, covering 40% of the South American continent. The Pacifi c is the largest ocean in the world, and is nearly twice the size of the Atlantic Ocean. 3 the planet we live on more than Language help Cover can mean that something is over something else, e.g. The surface was covered in water; The ground was covered with snow. Cover can also refer to the size of something, e.g. The Amazon rainforest covers 40% of South America, or the distance you travel, e.g. We covered ten miles in one day. B Geography Switzerland consists of [is made or formed from] three main geographical regions [areas in a country or the world]: The Swiss Plateau, The Jura, and The Alps. Switzerland is a land of contrasts [big differences], with completely different landscapes [the appearance of an area of land]. The climate [weather conditions] can also change within a very short distance. For example, Ascona in the south has an almost Mediterranean climate, but the Dufour Peak in Valais has a very cold climate. The distance between the two is just 70 kilometres. Basel Lake Constance St Gallen Zurich north north-west north-east Bern west Lake Geneva Geneva 18 east south-west south-east south Locarno English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate Exercises 6.1 Look at the map of Switzerland and complete the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6.2 . . . . . . . Test your knowledge. Can you complete these sentences without looking at the opposite page? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 6.3 Zurich is in the north The Jura mountains are Geneva is St Gallen is Basel is Lake Constance is Locarno is Two thirds of the surface of the Earth is covered in water. Vostok in Antarctica is the . El Azizia in Libya is the . The Krubera-Voronja is the deepest in the world. The Beijing–Hangzhou Grand is the longest in the world. At 979 metres the Angel Falls is the highest in the world. The Amazon is the largest . The largest in the world is the Pacific. The we live on is called the Earth. Complete the sentences. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world . In the autumn, the ground is in leaves that have fallen off the trees. You find this animal in the semi-desert of Australia. Brazil is a country of : large empty areas inland, and cities near the coast. The Amazon rainforest 40% of the South American continent. Mountains and lakes are typical of the in Switzerland. It was a freezing night. The was well below zero. Switzerland of three main geographical regions. It takes the moon just under 28 days to go round the . People say Cape Town in South Africa has a wonderful : sunny for much of the year, and never too hot or very cold. 11 The from London to Paris is 340 kilometres; that’s less than the from London to Edinburgh. 12 When the temperature fell to 10 Celsius, all the schools in the town closed. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6.4 Over to you Answer the questions about your country and your region. 1 What are the highest and lowest temperatures? 2 Do you like the climate? 3 Are there any regions which have a very different landscape from the rest of the country? 4 Do you have any long canals, or famous caves or waterfalls? 5 How would you describe the landscape in the region where you live? 6 What’s the distance from the place where you live to the next big town? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 19 7 A Weather Weather conditions Notice that it is very common to form adjectives by adding -y. noun adjective noun adjective verb fog foggy sun sunny the sun is shining cloud cloudy wind windy the wind is blowing the cold cold snow snowy it’s snowing ice icy rain wet it’s raining There are common word partners to describe weather conditions: It was very cloudy this morning, but the sun came out after lunch. [appeared] The accident happened in thick fog [bad fog]. We had some heavy rain at the weekend. [a lot of rain; opp light rain] There was a strong wind when we were on the boat. [a lot of wind] The wind has blown all the apples off the tree. It rained in the morning, but the sky was clear by lunchtime. [no clouds] It’s been extremely cold today. [very; also extremely hot/windy] B Rain and storms For heavy rain we often use the verb pour, e.g. pour with rain. For short periods of light or heavy rain, we use the noun shower. A storm is heavy rain with strong winds. It poured with rain this afternoon. Look, it’s really pouring (with rain) now. We had a couple of heavy/light showers this morning. A period of hot weather sometimes ends with a thunderstorm. First it becomes very humid [the air feels very warm and wet], then you hear thunder and see lightning, and it’s followed by heavy rain. C Temperature* 40 degrees Celsius boiling [very hot] hot 10 degrees below zero warm not very warm (also cool) cold (also chilly) freezing [very cold] * how hot or cold it is Language help Cool can either mean slightly cold in a negative way, e.g. We’ve had a cool summer; or slightly cold in a pleasant way, e.g. The water in the pool was lovely and cool. Mild is often used in a positive way to describe weather that is not as cold as usual, e.g. It’s been a mild winter. 20 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate Exercises 7.1 Match the words on the left with the words on the right. 1 a sunny e a with rain 2 heavy b fog 3 a strong c sky 4 a clear d and lightning 5 pour e day 6 thick f rain 7 thunder g wind 7.2 Write short sentences to describe the weather conditions in each picture. 7.3 1 It’s foggy. 3 5 2 4 6 True or false? If a sentence is false, change it to make it true. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.4 Complete the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7.5 When it’s foggy, you need sunglasses. False. When it’s foggy you can’t see very well. It’s nice to sit outside when it’s freezing. If you’re boiling, you might enjoy a swim. A shower is a type of wind. If it’s chilly, you may want to put on a coat. If it’s humid, the air will be very dry. A mild winter means it is colder than usual. If it rains, the road will be wet. We had really thick fog this morning. I don’t mind wet weather if it stays quite mild. I just hate the . We had a heavy this morning, but it only lasted a few minutes. It was with rain when we left the house. It was minus ten in New York yesterday. It is often below here in winter. It’s cold! It’s getting very humid. We might have a later. It was cloudy and grey this morning, but when the sun out it was quite hot. What’s the today? It feels much colder than yesterday. It was hot sitting in the sun, but under the beach umbrella it was nice and . Over to you Do you have these weather conditions in your country? When do you have them? humid weather thick fog storms and thunderstorms temperatures below zero strong winds showers English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 21 8 A Animals and insects Pets and farm animals In the UK, many people keep pets [animals that live with people]. The most common are dogs and cats, but people also keep birds, e.g. parrots, that are usually in a cage. Children sometimes keep mice (sing mouse) and rabbits. Some people keep more unusual animals as pets, e.g. frogs, snakes and spiders. rabbit donkey spider frog goat cage mouse snake parrot bull Farms in the UK may have sheep, pigs, cows, horses, donkeys, chickens, goats and a bull. B Wild animals The pictures show a number of wild animals [animals that normally live in natural conditions]. If you are lucky, you may see these animals in the wild [living free], but you will probably see them in a zoo. Some of these animals, for example tigers, are now quite rare [not often seen or found]. It is important that we protect [keep safe] these endangered animals. leopard monkey elephant tiger bear camel lion trunk giraffe C Insects wings bee D ant mosquito fly butterfly Sea creatures Many different creatures [living things, e.g. animals] live in the sea. octopus whale dolphin shark 22 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate Exercises 8.1 Put the words into the correct columns. goat monkey goat fly bull mosquito tiger donkey camel bee ant elephant leopard wild animals farm animals pig butterfly insects goat 8.2 Look at the underlined letters in each pair of words. Is the pronunciation the same or different? Use the index to help you. 1 2 3 4 5 8.3 goat giraffe spider wild camel snake leopard shark monkey frog Cats and dogs are the most common pets in the UK. I’ve only seen animals in zoos or on TV. I don’t like keeping birds in a ; they need more space. I hate ants and mosquitos. In fact, I hate all . It’s hard to see tigers in the wild because they are now . Some animals are disappearing, so we must them. Start each sentence with a suitable creature from the opposite page. 1 Sharks 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8.5 6 7 8 9 10 Complete the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8.4 whale water different cat camel same bear bee leopard mosquito lion tiger can swim very long distances. are very clever and are similar to humans. can travel through the desert for long distances without water. can be 25 metres in length. can eat leaves from tall trees when they are standing on the ground. sometimes change their skin several times a year. can pick things up with their trunk. are kept as pets, usually in cages, and some can even talk! Over to you Answer the questions. If possible, compare your answers with someone else. 1 Have you got any pets? What pets? 2 Have you ever seen animals in the wild? What did you see? Where? 3 How do you feel about birds in cages and wild animals in zoos? 4 Are you frightened of any creatures, e.g. mice? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 23 9 A The body and movement Parts of the body The outer part of the body is covered in skin. Too much sun is bad for your skin. forehead cheek lips shoulder neck chin chest elbow breast waist bottom wrist hip thumb knee ankle heel B Movements with your mouth, face and head C Common expressions People breathe through their nose or mouth. You breathe in and out about 12–15 times a minute. People smile when they’re happy, and sometimes smile at people to be polite. People laugh at things which are funny. People sometimes cry if they’re very unhappy, or receive bad news. People in some countries nod their head [move it up and down] to mean ‘yes’, and shake their head [move it from side to side] for ‘no’. People often yawn when they’re tired, and sometimes when they’re bored. shake hands with someone comb your hair fold your arms 24 toe English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate blow your nose wave to somebody Exercises 9.1 Find ten more words for parts of the body, either across or down. T H U K C A P O N H N H N I toe E C H E E K O H I P E S L C E A N K T E H E L B O W E I L 9.2 P S K I N Match the words on the left with the words on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9.3 I shake wave comb fold blow nod e a your hair b your nose c to somebody d your head e hands f your arms Label the picture. 1 forehead 6 7 2 3 4 8 5 9.4 What do these actions often mean? (There may be several possible answers.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 People often smile when they’re happy. They often breathe quickly after They laugh They may wave to somebody They blow their nose They shake their head And nod their head They cry They yawn English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 25 10 A Describing appearance Describing beauty Your appearance is the way you look, and we sometimes use different words to talk about beauty in men and women. WOMEN can be attractive or good-looking [nice to look at], and we often use pretty [attractive] to describe a girl. We use beautiful or gorgeous for women who are very attractive. MEN can be attractive and good-looking, but also handsome. If men are very attractive, we can say they are gorgeous or very good-looking, but not usually beautiful. Liam has become quite handsome. Olivia was very pretty when she was younger. Bella looks gorgeous in that dress. They’re a very good-looking couple. Language help The opposite of beautiful is ugly, but it is not very polite to describe someone as ugly; ordinary [not special or different] is more polite. It also isn’t polite to say that someone is fat; overweight is more polite. B Size We can talk about a person’s height [how tall or short they are] and their weight [how heavy they are], e.g. I’m roughly [about; syn approximately] one metre eighty (tall), and I weigh just under eighty kilograms. If someone is not tall or short, you can describe them as medium height. If a person is very similar to most other people in height and weight, you can say they are average. A: How tall is Hannah? B: Medium height, I’d say. C A: Is Marco quite big? B: No, about average. Hair blonde (or blond) fair brown dark black Common mistakes straight D wavy curly Remember that ‘hair’ is uncountable, e.g. She’s got straight hair. (NOT She’s got straight hairs.) Also: She’s got long black hair. (NOT She’s got a long black hair.) Talking about someone’s appearance A: B: A: B: What does Sophia’s boyfriend look like? [Can you describe his appearance?] He’s blond, and quite good-looking. Is he tall? Er, tallish [quite tall], but he’s got broad shoulders [wide; opp narrow]. He looks very athletic [strong, healthy and often good at sports]. I think he does a lot of sport. A: Is he quite smart [clean, tidy and stylish]? B: Yeah, he dresses quite well [the clothes he wears are quite nice]. Language help We can use the suffix -ish at the end of some adjectives to mean ‘quite’, e.g. She’s got longish hair, and at the end of some numbers to mean ‘more or less’, e.g. He’s twentyish. 26 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate Exercises 10.1 Complete the sentences. 1 .2 3 4 5 6 7 10.2 She’s got straight hair . Isabella is very good. Beata’s got blonde . Her brother’s got very broad . That’s a nice suit: Jack’s very today. I would say he was medium . Charlotte’s hair is fair but her brother’s is quite . Find six more pairs of words in the box. Why are they pairs? attractive height average good-looking weight narrow tall curly approximately medium wavy broad weigh roughly Attractive and good- looking are similar in meaning. 10.3 Complete the dialogues using words that are similar to the underlined words. 1 A: B: 2 A: B: 3 A: B: 4 A: B: 5 A: B: 6 A: B: 7 A: B: 8 A: B: 9 A: B: 10.4 She’s good-looking. Yes, very attractive . María José looked beautiful last night. Yes, absolutely . Her boyfriend’s quite good-looking. Yes, he is rather . Andreas looks very strong and healthy. Yes, I think he’s very . That little girl is attractive, isn’t she? Yes, she’s very . Ethan’s getting fat. Yes, he is a bit . Did you think he was a bit ugly? Yes, he was quite . Is she about 25? Yes, . He’s just above average height. Yes, he is , isn’t he? Over to you Answer the questions. 1 How tall are you? 2 What’s your hair like? 3 Think about one of your best friends. What does he/she look like? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 27 11 A Describing character What are you like? Describe your character 1 Choose the number that describes you. For example, in the first line 1 = very positive, 3 = not very positive or negative, 5 = very negative. 1 2 3 4 5 I think I’m very positive2. I’m quite a negative person. I’m usually reliable3. I’m quite unreliable. I’m quite confident4. I’m quite shy5. I’m hard-working6. I’m quite lazy. I have a good sense of humour7. I’m usually quite serious8. I’m usually quite patient9. I’m quite impatient. 1 1 2 3 4 5 what you are like as a person Common mistakes 2 believe that good things will happen 3 can be trusted to do what people expect you to do A: What’s he like? (NOT How 4 feeling sure about yourself and your abilities is he like?) 5 not confident, especially about meeting or talking to new people B: He’s very nice. (NOT He’s 6 putting a lot of effort into your work and spending a lot of time on it like very nice.) 7 the ability to laugh and understand when something is funny 8 a serious person is quiet and doesn’t laugh very much 9 able to stay calm and not get angry, especially when things take a lot of time B Opposites positive negative generous [happy to give more money or help than is usual] mean honest [an honest person tells the truth] clever, intelligent [able to learn and understand things quickly] dishonest stupid calm [relaxed and not worried or frightened] nervous, anxious Language help We use kind to describe someone who wants to help people a lot, and nice, friendly or pleasant for someone who is happy to talk to people. The opposites are unkind, unfriendly and unpleasant. C Describing a friend The first thing I would say about my best friend is that she’s very sensible1. I’ve never known Emilia to do anything silly2, and I know I can always trust3 her. She’s also very creative4; shemakesthings,andshe’savery talented5 artist. I wish6 I had her talent. 1 practical; doesn’t do stupid things 2 not sensible, a bit stupid 3 be sure that she is honest 4 good at thinking of new ideas and using her imagination 28 5 6 has a natural ability I would like to have her talent but I haven’t got it. English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate Exercises 11.1 Find five pairs of opposites and put them into the correct columns. nice mean sensible lazy calm generous unpleasant hard-working silly nervous positive negative nice 11.2 Write the opposites using the correct prefix. 1 un kind 2 friendly 11.3 5 6 honest reliable My brother is in the office from 8 am to 6 pm every day. hard-working He has never bought me a drink in ten years. She often promises to do things but sometimes she forgets. My teacher explains things again and never gets angry. Emma finds it difficult to meet people and talk to strangers. Noah is practical and doesn’t do anything stupid. Our teacher is nice, but he’s quiet and he doesn’t laugh a lot. Danya is very relaxed and doesn’t seem to worry about things. My boss is really good at using his imagination to think of new ideas. Ava can play several musical instruments. Complete the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11.5 pleasant patient Describe the person in the sentences, in one word. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11.4 3 4 impatient My sister can’t wait for anything; she’s so . I get very before exams; I need to try and relax a bit more. I I could paint as well as your brother; he’s so creative. Adeline hasn’t done a thing since she’s been here. Honestly, she’s so I always have a laugh with my cousin – he’s got a great sense of My younger sister is able to understand new ideas so quickly; she’s very If Sarah says she’ll do it, then she’ll do it. I her completely. He’d like to be relaxed and confident, but it’s just not part of his He failed his exams, but he isn’t . He just didn’t do any work. Aurora helped me bake some cakes last week; she’s very . . . . . Over to you Complete the quiz on the opposite page for yourself. From all the words on the opposite page, which one would you most like to be, and which is the one you would hate to be? If possible, compare your answers with someone else. English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 29 12 Feelings A How do you feel? Language help We use emotion and feeling(s) for something which someone feels strongly about, e.g. love, hate or anger. Emotions are part of our character, e.g. Timo is a very emotional person. [shows his feelings easily] Feeling is often plural, e.g. She doesn’t like talking about her feelings. I’m very proud1 of my son’s success, but I’m a bit disappointed2 that the local paper hasn’t shown more interest in the story. The politicians seem confused3 about what to do, so I’m not hopeful4 that things will improve. 3 1 feeling good because you (or someone you 2 4 know) has done something well unhappy because someone or something was not as good as you hoped. not able to think clearly or understand something feeling positive about a future situation I think Harry ended the relationship because his girlfriend was getting jealous8, but now he’s quite upset9. We were curious5 to see what all the noise was about, but I felt anxious6 when I saw how angry the men were, and really scared7 when they started coming towards us. 8 unhappy and angry because someone you love seems too interested in another person 9 unhappy because something unpleasant has happened 5 wanting to know or learn about something worried 7 afraid; syn frightened 6 Language help adjective proud jealous curious noun pride jealousy curiosity B The effect of the weather on our feelings C The effect of colour on our emotions adjective disappointed confused anxious noun disappointment confusion anxiety Why do people say they feel more cheerful [happy] when the sun shines, and miserable [unhappy] when it’s raining? Why do some people suffer from SAD (seasonal affective disorder), which makes them feel depressed [unhappy, often for a long time, and without hope for the future] during long dark winters? Can the weather really affect our mood [the way we feel at a particular time], or is it just in our imaginations? COLOUR can have an effect on our mood, but how do specific colours relate to our emotions? RED can make us feel energetic1, but it can also indicate anger2. GREEN is associated with nature and is good for people suffering from stress4. PINK though, is softer and more about BLUE is relaxing and helps us to be creative5, but too much dark blue can make us depressed. maternal love and caring for3 people. 1 wanting to be busy and doing a lot of things 2 being angry 3 looking after someone, especially someone young or old 30 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 4 feelings of worry caused by difficult situations such as problems at work 5 good at thinking of new ideas or using our imagination Exercises 12.1 Cover the opposite page. Complete the tables. adjective noun adjective angry anger disappointed noun jealous curiosity confused anxious pride 12.2 Find the best sentence ending on the right for each of the sentence beginnings on the left. 1 2 3 4 5 6 12.3 He was very anxious when He was very jealous when He was very scared when He was very proud when He was very upset when He was very miserable when a b c d e f c he heard his aunt had died. his father appeared on TV with the Prime Minister. his 14-year-old daughter didn’t get home until 2 am. he saw the man coming towards him with a knife. he was ill. his best friend went out with the girl he really liked. Match the words and faces. anxious 1 1 12.4 emotion scared 2 cheerful upset 3 confused 4 depressed 5 6 Complete the sentences. 1 2 3 4 My aunt had to care for her elderly mother for years. I can’t tell whether Mia is happy or not; she never shows her . I’m much more in the mornings. By the afternoon I feel tired. Weather has a big on the way I feel. 5 He’s been under a lot of recently because of the amount of work he has to do. changes all the time. 6 Oliver’s cheerful one minute and miserable the next; his 7 It’s been a depressing month, but I’m 8 I don’t like walking home in the dark. I get very 12.5 things will get better next month. . Over to you Answer the questions. If possible, compare your answers with someone else. 1 Does colour or the weather have an effect on your emotions? How? 2 Do you ever suffer from stress? Why? 3 Does your mood change a lot from day to day? Why? 4 Do you feel more energetic at certain times of the day? Why? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 31 13 Family and friends A Relatives* RELATIVES My father died when I was nine, and so my mother was a widow1 with four young children. She remarried five years later, so now I have a stepfather. As he is not my real father, I call him by his first name, which is Dieter. I’ve got an elder2 brother called Thomas and two younger sisters, Anya and Claudia, who are twins3. We’re a close family4. My mother is an only child5, but I’ve got two uncles on my father’s side. One is married with two children, and the other is married with three children, so altogether I have five cousins. I get on well with6 Uncle Rolf, and he always tells me I’m his favourite nephew. Of his nieces, I think he likes Anya best. Recently my brother Thomas got married. His wife’s name is Sabine, so I now have a sister-in-law7 as well. * members of your family; syn relations 1 a woman whose husband has died 2 older 3 two children born to one mother at the same time 4 a family who like each other and stay together a lot 5 without brothers or sisters have a good relationship with 7 (also mother/brother/son-in-law, etc.) 6 Father Mother Dieter Uncle Rolf Sabine Thomas Me Anya Claudia Common mistakes It’s more common and more natural to say ‘Thomas’s wife’ (NOT the wife of Thomas) or ‘Anna’s younger sister’ (NOT the younger sister of Anna). B Friends FRIENDS My best friend is Florian, an old school friend1. We got to know each other2 when we were in the same class at school. We’ve been mates3 ever since4, and our friendship is very important to both of us. He spends a lot of time with my family, and his current5 girlfriend is actually one of Thomas’s ex-girlfriends. But we all get on really well. Florian Language help We use the prefix ex- for a relationship we had in the past but do not have now, e.g. The children stay with my ex- husband at the weekend; I saw an ex- girlfriend of mine yesterday. 32 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate Exercises 13.1 Look at the family tree, then complete the sentences below. Simon (now dead) Cath Emily (11) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 13.2 Tom (16) Simon died two years ago, so Cath is a widow Leyla is Cath’s . Tom is Cath’s . Cath is Meg’s . Simon was Brian’s . Tom is Leyla’s brother. Emily is Leyla’s . Emily is an child. Meg Leyla (14) Henry (10) . Which words are being defined? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13.3 Brian Your current Your An Your boyfriend is the one that you have now. means get married again. are all the members of your family. friend is the one you like more than any other. friend is someone you have known for a long time. are two children born to one mother at the same time. is an informal word for a friend. is the noun when two people are friends. is the man who is married to your mother but is not your father. Complete the text. I was still going out with James when I met my husband, Ben. We 1 got to know each other because we went to the same gym twice a week. We went out with each other for about 18 months, and we got 2 three years ago, so 3 we’ve been a 4 couple for almost five years. We’ve continued to go to the gym ever we got married, and I still quite often see James when we’re there. It’s nice if you can still 5 with an 6 -boyfriend or -girlfriend. 13.4 Over to you Answer the questions for you, then, if possible, ask a friend and write their answers. 1 Are you an only child? If not, do you have elder brothers or sisters? 2 Do you get on well with other members of your family? 3 Are you a close family? 4 Who was the last person in your family to get married? When? 5 Who’s your best friend? 6 How long have you known him/her? 7 How did you get to know each other? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 33 14 A B C Growing up Ages and stages in the UK Age Stage 0 birth [the moment a baby is born] Up to 12 months a baby 12 months – 3 years old a toddler 3–12 years old a child: this period is your childhood 13–18 approximately a teenager: during this period you are in your teens 18+ an adult 40+ approximately people are middle-aged [in the middle of their lives] 60 or 65 retirement [when people stop work; they are retired] 80+ old age (we usually describe people as elderly) Common mistakes Approximate ages I’m in my early twenties [21–23]. My parents are in their mid-fifties [54–56]. My grandmother is in her late seventies [77–79]. My grandfather is nearly/almost eighty [he’s probably 79]. My English teacher’s approximately/roughly thirty. [about 30 / more or less 30] We can say, he’s 30 or he’s 30 years old. (NOT he has 30 or he’s 30 years) Also: a 30-year-old man (NOT a 30-years-old man) Past and present PAST AND PRESENT My grandmother’s name was Mary. She’s dead1 now. She died about ten years ago when I was in my teens, but I remember her well. She was brought up2 on a farm in Wales, and her parents were very strict: as a teenager, they didn’t allow3 her to listen to the radio or go to parties in the village. In the end4, she decided to leave home and get a job in Cardiff. At first5 it wasn’t easy, but she managed6 to find work, and she also met the man who became her husband: my grandfather. My mother was born four years later. She had a very different childhood. She grew up in the city, she was allowed to go to parties, and when she was in her teens, her parents let7 her stay out late8. My mum is the same with me. 1 not living; opp alive 2 looked after until you are an adult 3 give permission 4 finally, after a lot of time or thought 5 at the beginning 6 was able (but it was difficult) 7 allowed 8 not go home until late Language help Let and allow have the same meaning. Let is slightly more informal, and allow is often used in the passive. My dad let me drive his car. I was allowed to drive my dad’s car. You’re not allowed to smoke in that room. (NOT It’s not allowed to smoke in that room.) 34 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate Exercises 14.1 Complete the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 14.2 . . . . . . now. Mary was brought up in the city. False. Mary was brought up on a farm. She grew up in Wales. Her parents let her do what she wanted. She wasn’t allowed to listen to the radio. Life was easy when she went to Cardiff. She couldn’t get a job in Cardiff. Rewrite the sentences without using the underlined words and phrases. Keep a similar meaning. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14.4 . Are the sentences true or false about Mary’s life on the opposite page? If a sentence is false, change it to make it true. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14.3 Isabella is only six months old – she’s still a baby Louis was 22 a few months ago, so he’s in his Amelia is 35, so she’s in her . Abigail will be 13 this year, so she’ll soon be a William is 53 and his wife is 47, so they’re both Joan is 80 this year, so she is quite . Michael was a bus driver for 40 years but he’s now Leon is 18 this year, so legally he becomes The boys are 14 and 16, so they’re both in their Holly is just over a year old and she’s starting to walk, so she’s a My parents are dead now. It was hard but finally I did it. She’s approximately my age. They’re almost thirty now. I had to do what my parents wanted. My parents let me stay up and watch TV. My mum looked after me in Scotland. I was able to pass my exams but it wasn’t easy. I didn’t go home until late. I was allowed to wear what I liked. I was happy as a child. My grandparents don’t work any more. My parents aren’t alive now It was hard but She’s They’re My parents were I was I was I I My parents I had a happy My grandparents are . . . . . . . . . . . . Over to you Answer the questions. If possible, ask a friend and write their answers. 1 Where were you brought up? 2 What do you particularly remember about your childhood? 3 Were your parents strict? What weren’t you allowed to do when you were a child? 4 How late were you allowed to stay out when you were a teenager? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 35 15 A Romance, marriage and divorce Romance I had my first date1 when I was 16, and it was terrible. I took a girl to the cinema but she didn’t like the film and looked bored all evening; it was a bad start. Then, when I was 17, I went out with2 a girl for three months, but we broke up3 when she met a boy who was two years older than me, and had a car. My first serious relationship4 was when I went to university. I got to know5 Melanie because we were on the same course. At first we were just friends, then we started going out with each other, and after a few months we realised we were in love. We got engaged6 a couple of7 years after we left university and then … 1 a planned romantic meeting 5 became friends with 2 6 had a romantic relationship with 3 the relationship ended 4 important romantic relationship B Marriage* 7 formally agreed to marry two, perhaps three (bride) groom bride … we got married the following year. We didn’t want a big ceremony , so we had the wedding3 in the local church near Melanie’s home with just family and a few friends. afterwards we had the reception4 in a small hotel nearby, and then went on our honeymoon5 to Greece. 1 * the time when you are married 1 became husband and wife 2 an important public event 2 3 the ceremony when people get married the wedding party 5 a holiday just after getting married 4 Common mistakes She got to know Darren at university. (NOT She knew Darren at university.) Now they plan to get married. (NOT They plan to get marry; or They plan to married.) She’s getting married to Darren next year. (NOT She’s getting married with Darren next year.) C Children Just over three years later Melanie got pregnant, and our first child, Cal, was born just two days after our fourth wedding anniversary1. We had a big celebration2. 1 2 a day that is exactly one or more years after an important event a time when you do something you enjoy because it is a special day Language help adjective engaged pregnant D noun engagement pregnancy verb celebrate marry noun celebration marriage Divorce* Things started to go wrong1 when I got a job as manager of a sportswear company. I was working six days a week and I had to do a lot of travelling. It was difficult for Melanie as well. She was working during the week, then at weekends she was often alone / on her own2 with two young children. I felt I couldn’t give up3 my job, and in the end Melanie decided to leave4 me. The following year we got divorced5. 36 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate * when a marriage officially ends 1 become a problem without other people 3 stop doing 4 stop living with me 5 the marriage officially ended 2 Exercises 15.1 Put the events in a logical order. I went out with Gabriel. We got married. I got pregnant three months later. We got engaged. I got to know Gabriel. Our son was born just after our first anniversary. We went on our honeymoon. I met Gabriel at a party. We had a big reception. 15.2 Which words are being defined? 1 2 3 4 5 6 The big party you have after the wedding. reception A romantic meeting you plan before it happens. The period of time when you are married. How you describe a woman who is going to have a baby. The day that is exactly one year, or a number of years, after an important event. The name given to the woman and man on their wedding day. and 7 Stop doing a job or activity. 15.3 15.4 1 something up Complete the dialogues. 1 A: B: 2 A: B: A: B: When did they get engaged ? Last week. They plan to get married in a Where did they meet? I think he got her at university. And now they’re married? Yes, the was last week. 3 A: B: A: B: 4 A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: Is it going to be a big wedding? No, they’re having a small in the village church. And what about the reception? They’re having a reception but no . They’re going straight back to work. So, it’s all over. Yes. Lily him and moved out last month. Oh dear. Have they had problems for a long time? I think it all started to go when they moved to Woodbridge. And what about Oliver? Is he alone now? Yes, completely on . He doesn’t want any new relationships yet. But the marriage is definitely over? Yes, I’m afraid they’re getting . of years. Over to you Answer the questions for you, then, if possible, ask a friend and write their answers. 1 Can you remember your first date? (When, and who with?) 2 Can you remember your first serious relationship? (Who was it with? Did you break up, or are you still with the same person?) 3 Whose was the last wedding you went to? 4 What was the last big celebration (other than a wedding) that you went to? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 37 16 Daily routines A Sleep During the week I usually wake up1 about 7.30 am. If I don’t, my mum wakes me up. I get up2 a few minutes later. In the evenings I go to bed about 10.30 pm, and usually go to sleep3 straight away4. If I have a late night5 I try to have a sleep6 in the afternoon when I get home from college. 1 stop sleeping 2 get out of bed 3 start sleeping; syn fall asleep B 4 immediately go to bed very late; opp have an early night 6 a short period of sleeping, e.g. half an hour 5 Food I have coffee and cereal for breakfast, then have a light lunch1, maybe a sandwich and an apple, and a snack2 in the afternoon. We have our main meal in the evening. If Mum’s late home from work, she doesn’t bother3 to cook; we just get a takeaway4 instead. One of us has to feed5 the cat as well. 1 have a small meal 2 a small amount of food you eat between meals 3 doesn’t do something because there is no reason or because it is too much work C a meal you buy in a restaurant but eat at home 5 give food cereal Bathroom routines I usually have a shower when I get home from college because my sister, Rosie, and my brother, Marcus, spend so much time in the bathroom in the morning. I only have time to have a wash and clean my teeth (syn brush my teeth), before Rosie comes in to put on a bit of make-up. In the winter I sometimes have a bath instead of1 a shower. I like to lie in the bath and listen to music. 1 D 4 in place of (a shower) Marcus having a shave Rosie putting on make-up Housework* Fortunately1 we’ve got a cleaner2 who does a lot of the housework, and that includes doing my washing3. But I still have to make my bed and do some of my ironing, and I sometimes do the shopping with Mum. * the work of keeping a home clean and tidy 1 happening because of good luck; syn luckily 2 3 a person who cleans washing my clothes ironing Language help When we do the shopping, we buy food at the supermarket; when we go shopping, it is a leisure activity and we perhaps buy clothes, DVDs, books, etc. E Spare time* On weekdays I usually stay in1 and watch TV in the evening. At the weekend I go out quite a lot with my friends, either to the cinema or just to a café, and I eat out2 once a week. Sometimes friends come round3 and we chat4 about clothes, music and college. * time when you are not working 1 stay at home 2 eat in a restaurant; opp eat in 38 3 4 visit me in my home have an informal conversation English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate Exercises 16.1 Find seven more expressions with have + [noun] and do + [noun] from the opposite page. have a shower have have have do do do do 16.2 Match the words on the left with the words on the right. g 1 get up a the dog 2 fall b my teeth 3 make c make-up 16.3 4 put on 5 go 6 clean d a week e the bed f to sleep 7 feed 8 once g early h asleep One word is missing in each sentence. What is it and where does it go? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 16.4 16.5 Does it cost much to have a cleaner to the housework? do My mother usually me up around 7:30, then I get up about 7:45. If I have a in the afternoon, I usually eat fruit instead of chocolate. I always go on Friday and Saturday, often to the cinema or a club. Sometimes friends round to the flat and we play computer games. I eat at the weekend, usually in a local Italian or French restaurant. I don’t with a full meal at lunchtime; I usually just have a light lunch, like a salad. I often have for breakfast – usually cornflakes or something like that. I don’t like doing housework; I have a husband who does most of it. When I get emails, I try to reply to them straight. Complete the dialogue with a word or phrasal verb from the opposite page in each gap. A: Don’t 1 bother to cook dinner tonight. B: Why not? A: We could go out 2 of eating here. B: Yeah. Where? A: Well, I’d like to try that new Korean restaurant. B: That’s miles away. No, I think I’d rather 3 and have an 4 night. A: But it’s Friday. B: Yes, I know, but I’m tired. Why don’t we ask Ryan and Charlotte to 5 ? 6 You don’t have to cook, we can order a . And we can have a nice 7 round the dining table; much better than a noisy restaurant. Over to you Find three facts from the opposite page that are similar in your routine, and three that are different. Complete the table. similar different 1 2 3 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 39 17 A The place where you live Location* We live on the outskirts of town1, and it’s a very nice location. We used to live in the centre, but we moved2 to our present flat when we had children because there’s more space3 for them to play and it has nice views4. * the place and position of something 1 on the edge of town 2 changed the place where we live B 3 4 an area that is empty or not used the things you can see from a place Our flat This is where we live. We rent1 a flat on the second floor. There’s a family in the flat downstairs2, and a young French couple upstairs, on the top floor. It’s a modern block of flats3, and it’s quite good, although the lift4 is small, and there’s no air conditioning5. second floor top floor balcony 1 pay money every week/month to use it because it isn’t ours 2 on a lower level of a building 3 a building with a number of flats in it 4 the machine that takes people up or down a floor 5 a system that keeps the air cool Language help Flat is more common in British English; apartment is used in American English but is becoming more common in British English. Apartments are usually in large buildings; flats can be in a large building or part of a larger house. C steps front door ground floor A house in the country My parents own1 a cottage2. It’s a charming3 house and has lots of character4, but like many old buildings, it’s quite dark (opp light), quite difficult to heat5, and it doesn’t have central heating6. 1 they bought it a small house, that is old and attractive, and usually found in the country 3 pleasant and attractive 4 it is interesting and unusual 5 make warm or hot 6 a system that heats a whole house 2 cottage 40 first floor English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate Exercises 17.1 Are the sentences about the people on the opposite page true or false? If the sentence is false, change it to make it true. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 17.2 They live in a house. False. They live in a flat. They used to live on the outskirts of town. They own their flat. They’ve got nice views from their flat. They live on the first floor. There’s a lift in the building. A French couple live downstairs. They own a cottage. The cottage has lots of character. The cottage is quite cold. Are these generally positive or negative features of a home? views positive dark 17.3 character no central heating Label the pictures. 1 a block of flats 17.4 air conditioning charming 2 3 4 5 6 Complete the sentences. Our flat doesn’t have air conditioning . I live the second floor, and my cousin lives , on the first floor. My old flat was very small, but this one has much more . The flat’s in a great : it’s near the centre of town but opposite a park and very quiet. We live on the of town, but it’s only a twenty-minute walk to the centre. The flat is on the third floor, but we can sit outside on the . It’s a very big house, so it costs a lot of money to in the winter. I’m on the second . I usually use the stairs, but take the if I’m feeling lazy. 9 I live in Paris. I used to live in Marseilles, but I to Paris when I left university. 10 I love my apartment. It has big windows, so it’s nice and inside. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17.5 Over to you Answer the questions about your home. 1 Do you live in a house or flat? 5 How long have you lived there? 2 If you live in a flat, what floor is it on? 6 Do you have these things: 3 Do you own your home or rent it? 4 Are you in the centre, or on the outskirts of your town? air conditioning? a balcony? central heating? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 41 18 Around the home A Different homes When we first got married, we lived in a one-bedroom flat with a small kitchen, a living room and a bathroom. When our first child was born, she had to share our bedroom. [use something at the same time as someone else] Now we live in a four-bedroom house. Our bedroom has an en-suite bathroom [a bathroom connected to the bedroom], our two teenage children have their own rooms [they do not have to share], we have a spare room for guests, and another bathroom. Language help Downstairs, there’s a living room, a dining room and a study We usually talk about a sink in [a room where people can work]. We’ve also got a lovely big the kitchen, but a (wash)basin kitchen with a fridge-freezer, a cooker with two ovens and a in the bathroom. dishwasher [a machine for washing dishes]. Next to it, there’s a small utility room where we keep the washing machine. tiles freezer kettle tap microwave B cupboards Choices* sink oven cooker fridge * when you decide between two or more possibilities WHAT DO YOU PREFER? FOR THE HOME LIGHTING GIFTS 2 SALE 4 1 3 Some people like big soft sofas1 with lots of cushions2, some people like firm (opp soft) armchairs. Do you like a wooden floor3 with a rug4, or a carpet? 7 5 6 Curtains, 42 or blinds? A duvet, English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate or a sheet5 and a blanket6? One pillow7, or two? Exercises 18.1 You are in the kitchen. Where would you put these things? milk? in the fridge food that you want to heat very quickly? meat that you are going to cook? dirty clothes? dirty saucepans? clean cups and saucers frozen food that you want to keep for several weeks? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18.2 What are these things, and which room(s) do you usually find them in? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 18.3 fridge, in the kitchen Complete the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 18.4 girdef snik nacitusr shiconus ktelet bashniswa cparte lipowl shiwang chameni kocero chmariar leits I’m happy with curtains or blinds ; I really don’t mind. We used to have a floor, but it was a bit noisy so we put down a carpet. When I got my new bedroom, my mum gave me a of curtains or blinds. My mum works at home, so she spends all day in the on the computer. As a child I had to a room with my sister, but now I’ve got my bedroom. We often have guests to stay, but fortunately we’ve got a room. ‘Dad, there’s no water coming out of the in the kitchen sink.’ Some people like a sheet and , but I prefer a . There’s a family bathroom, but I’ve got my own shower room next to the bedroom. Our kitchen is small but we have a room for the washing machine. Over to you Answer the questions. If possible, compare your answers with someone else. 1 What have you got on your kitchen floor? 2 What have you got on the bathroom floor? 3 What have you got on the floor in the living room? 4 Have you got curtains or blinds in your bedroom? 5 Have you got a duvet or sheets and blankets on your bed? 18.5 Over to you Look at section B on the opposite page again. Which do you prefer, and why? Compare your answers with someone else if possible. English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 43 19 A Money Notes and coins In the UK the currency [type of money used] is sterling [pounds]; in America it is the dollar; in much of Europe it’s the euro. Notes e.g. ten pounds, twenty euros, a ten-pound note, a twenty-euro note B Coins (in the UK) e.g. fifty pence (usually spoken as fifty p), a pound, a fifty-pence piece, but a one-pound coin Managing your money I’ve had a bank account for a few years now, and I make sure my account is always in credit1. I go to the cashpoint once a week, so I always have some cash2 with me, and I check3 my account online once a week to see how much money I’ve got. 1 having money in the account money in the form of notes and coins 3 look at the details of it 2 cashpoint C Money problems When I went to university, I had to get a student loan1 to pay my fees2. That meant I had to be careful and make sure I didn’t waste money3, but by the time I finished my degree I owed4 a lot. One good thing is that I don’t have to pay it back until I get a job and I’m earning5 a reasonable amount6 of money. At the moment I’m saving up7 for a new laptop; the one I have is very slow and keeps going wrong. I’d love to have a car as well, but I can’t afford8 it. 1 money you borrow to pay for your studies 2 money you pay to use something, or for a service, e.g. a lawyer’s fee 3 use it badly 5 receiving money for the work I do quite a lot; $ 1 million is a large amount 7 keeping money to buy something in the future 8 don’t have enough money to buy one 6 4 had to pay back a lot of money to the bank D Accommodation* This year I’m renting a flat with three friends of mine. We had to pay one month’s rent as a deposit1, but it’s a nice place, quite good value for money2, and the landlord isn’t charging3 us to use his garage. * places where you live or stay 1 money you pay for something you are going to use, which is then returned to you when you have finished using it 2 good for the amount of money you pay 3 asking someone to pay an amount of money Language help We use rent when we pay to use something for a long period of time, e.g. rent a flat. The noun rent is the amount you pay, e.g. The rent is £400 per month. We use hire when we pay to use something for a short period of time, e.g. I hired a bike for the day. Both verbs are used with cars, e.g. We rented/hired a car when we were on holiday. 44 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate Exercises 19.1 Answer the questions as quickly as possible. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 19.2 A flat, usually round piece of metal used as money. coin Money you borrow from a bank. Money you pay to someone for a professional service, e.g. a school. Money in the form of notes or coins. Money you pay to live in a building that you don’t own. A machine where you can get money. The type of money used in a country. Rewrite the sentences without using the underlined words and phrases. Keep the same meaning. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 19.4 Yes Which words are being defined? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 19.3 Is sterling a currency? Is a five-pound note worth less than a fifty-pence piece? If you rent something, do you own it? If you waste money, do you use it well? Can you get money from a cashpoint? If you are in credit, do you have money in your account? Do you pay back a bank loan? Is the currency in the United States of America called the euro? Do you normally get back a deposit? If you ‘can afford’ something, do you have enough money for it? He’s getting £300 a week in his job. She used the money badly. I don’t have enough money to go. We could rent a car. He asked us to pay £25. I’ve got to pay back a lot of money. I always look at my account carefully. He’s earning £300 a week in his job. She I We could He I I always Complete the text. I’m nearly 20 now, and I’ve been 1 saving up for a car for the last two years. I’ve been 2 putting money into my bank , and I try to put in exactly the same 3 every month: £75 from money that I 4 doing a job two evenings a week, and £50 that my parents are lending me each month. That means I now 5 them £1200, but they said I don’t have to 6 them until I’ve got a full-time job. At the moment I’m still living at home, so 7 I don’t have to pay for my , although I will start paying my parents a bit of rent when I finish college and get a job. 19.5 Over to you Answer the questions. 1 Have you got a bank account? If so, how long have you had it? 2 How often do you check your account? 3 How often do you use a cashpoint? 4 Have you ever had a bank loan? What did you have the loan for? 5 Are you saving up for anything at the moment? 6 Do you rent the place where you live? If so, did you have to pay a deposit? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 45 20 A Health Common problems What’s the matter? What you should do A: I’ve got a sore throat1 and a temperature.2 B: That sounds like flu. You should see a doctor. A: I’ve cut my arm; it’s bleeding.3 B: Put a bandage4 round it. A: I’ve got a terrible cough.5 B: Go to the chemist and get some cough medicine [something you take to treat an illness]. A: I’ve got a headache. B: Take some tablets6 for the pain. (also pills) A: I feel sick.7 B: Go to the bathroom quickly! 2 B 5 3 1 7 4 6 Describing pain We can use different words to describe pain. An ache describes pain that is not always strong, but often continues. It is used with certain parts of the body. I’ve got a headache. Aria’s got stomach ache. My dad suffers from [often has the pain of] backache. For other parts of the body we often use pain. I’ve got a pain in my shoulder/foot. Ache can also be a verb to describe pain that continues for some time. By the end of the day my feet were aching. For stronger or more sudden pain, we usually use the verb hurt. My throat hurts when I speak. I hit my leg on the table and it really hurts / it’s very painful. C Serious illnesses For serious [bad] illnesses, you will probably go into hospital. A person who stays in hospital is called a patient. Many patients need an operation [when special doctors, called surgeons, cut into the body for medical reasons; also called surgery]. Lung cancer can be caused by smoking. Heart attacks can happen very suddenly. Hepatitis is a disease affecting the liver. Language help Disease is used to talk about more serious medical problems, often affecting certain parts of the body, e.g. heart disease. Illness is used to talk about serious and minor medical problems and those affecting the mind, e.g. mental illness. Disease is not used about a period of illness, e.g. He died after a long illness. (NOT He died after a long disease.) 46 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate lungs heart liver Exercises 20.1 Look at the underlined letters in each pair of words. Is the pronunciation the same or different? Use the index to help you. 1 2 3 4 20.2 She’s got - hepatitis. I’ve got a cough. I’m getting sore throat. Ben’s got headache. Luis’s got temperature. liver disease stomach operation chemist ache patient bandage 6 7 8 9 10 I’ve got backache. Zarita’s got flu. My uncle had heart attack. She’s got cancer. I’ve got pain in my foot. Complete the dialogues. 1 A: B: 2 A: B: 3 A: B: 4 A: B: 5 A: B: 6 A: B: 7 A: B: 8 A: B: 20.4 5 6 7 8 Complete the sentences with a or nothing (–). 1 2 3 4 5 20.3 ache pain same different cold stomach -. cough through flu cut Does your finger hurt? Yes, it’s very painful . What’s wrong with Dimitrios? He feels . I think it’s something he ate. Did you hit your foot? Yes, and it really . My hand’s bleeding quite badly. Well, put a round it. Your finger’s . I know. I cut it using that knife. Does Tanya still from bad headaches? Yes, she gets them all the time. What’s the matter? My back from sitting at that computer all day. I understand Lena has had quite a illness. Yeah. She was in hospital for over a week. Find five more pairs of words. Why are they pairs? lung heart surgeon tablets/pills attack liver operation cancer hepatitis sore medicine throat lung and cancer - because you can get lung cancer. 20.5 Over to you Answer the questions. If possible, compare your answers with someone else. 1 What do you usually do if you get a headache? 2 How often do you get a cough or a sore throat? 3 Have you ever been a patient in hospital? If so, what was it like? 4 Have you ever had surgery? 5 Are there some medicines you always keep in your home? What are they? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 47 21 A Clothes Smart, stylish and casual I think the woman looks stylish [wearing nice clothes and looking attractive; also well- dressed]. The man is smartly dressed [clean and tidy and suitable for formal situations]. The boy’s clothes are more casual [comfortable and suitable for informal situations]. cap earring T-shirt top jumper/sweater rucksack necklace zip collar tie bracelet ring jacket sleeve skirt jeans scarf boots tights button pocket suit trainers B Verbs and phrases used with clothes As soon as I get up, I have a shower and get dressed [put on my clothes]. I don’t eat breakfast. I have to wear a suit and tie to work, but I usually take off my tie before lunchtime. [remove it; opp put something on] I think I look good in black because dark colours suit me. [I look good in dark colours; opp I prefer jackets with a zip; it’s easier to undo a zip [open a zip, buttons, etc.] and it’s also much quicker to do it up. When I get home from work, I usually change into a pair of jeans. 48 bright colours] Common mistakes I like clothes. (NOT I like cloth or cloths.) I like your new trousers. (NOT I like your new trouser.) English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and iIntermediate Exercises 21.1 Put the words into the correct columns. boots earrings button top ring jumper bracelet scarf necklace zip pocket cap sleeve tights collar items of clothing jewellery parts of clothing boots 21.2 Find five more things that are different in the pictures. 1 The first woman is wearing a ring; the second isn’t. 2 3 4 5 6 21.3 Complete the sentences. Why don’t you take off your coat? Madison looks really nice purple. He was very smartlythis morning. He had his best suit on. It took me ages to put these boots. You should wear bright colours more often; they you. Julia couldn’t do the zip on her jacket. I changed a pair of jeans as soon as I got home. I took my tie off and the top button of my shirt. My brother takes his books to school in a . He says it’s easier to carry them on his back. 10 I had a quick shower, got , then joined the others for breakfast. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 21.4 Over to you Women, answer these questions. Men, answer these questions. 1 What jewellery do you usually wear? How often do you wear a suit? 2 Which colours suit you best? How often do you wear a tie? 3 Do you prefer smart or casual clothes? Do you usually do up the top button of your shirt? 4 Do you generally look quite stylish? Do you often change into jeans after school or work? 5 Do you often wear a hat or a cap? Do you often wear a hat or a cap? 6 Do you often wear T-shirts or trainers? Do you often wear T-shirts or trainers? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 49 22 Fashion and buying clothes A Fashion FASHION: WHICH ARE YOU? 1 I usually shop1 with a friend. I always try on clothes2 before I buy them. I sometimes buy clothes that don’t suit me3, just because they’re fashionable4. If I buy trousers or a skirt, I buy a shirt or top to go with5 it at the same time. My wardrobe6 is full of clothes that I buy and hardly ever wear. I like to buy designer labels7, even though they’re more expensive. I like wearing fashionable clothes, but the price has to be reasonable8. I never buy clothes just because they’re in fashion9. I like to dress in10 clothes that are casual but still look quite fashionable. I’m always happy with what I’ve got on11. buy things in shops put clothes on in a shop to see what they are like 3 look good on me 4 popular at that particular time 5 look good together 6 a large cupboard for keeping clothes in 7 clothes made by famous designers, e.g. Versace, Dolce & Gabbana 8 not expensive 9 fashionable 10 wear a particular type, style or colour of clothes 11 am wearing 2 21 42 Language help If two things match, they are a similar colour or type. If two things go with each other, they look good together. Catherine’s bag matches her coat. Catherine’s bag goes with her coat. If something suits you, it looks good on you. If something fits you, it is the right size. B In a clothes shop A shop assistant [a person who works in a shop] is serving different customers [helping them to buy things]. Shop assisstant Can I help you? Customer 1 No, I’m being served, thanks. [another shop assistant is already helping me] Shop assisstant Do you need any help? Customer 2 Yes, I’ve just tried on this jacket in a size 12, and it didn’t really fit me; it’s a bit tight [too small around the body; opp loose/big]. Have you got it in a bigger size? Shop assisstant We have got a size 14, but not in pink, I’m afraid. Customer 2 Oh, that’s a shame [that is disappointing; syn that’s a pity]. OK. I’ll leave it, thanks. [I have decided not to buy it; opp I’ll take it/them] Shop assisstant OK. I’m sorry about that. … Can I help you? Customer 3 Yes, I’m looking for a skirt and this looks nice. [I want to find a skirt] Can I try it on? Shop assisstant Yes, of course. The changing rooms are down there. [the place where you can try on clothes] 50 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and iIntermediate Exercises 22.1 Are these pairs similar in meaning or different in meaning? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 22.2 Rewrite the sentences starting with the words given. Keep a similar meaning. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 22.3 I often shop with my mother. These watches are fashionable. Your top matches your skirt. I like what I’m wearing. Those trousers suit you. Are they the right size? I’d like it to be quite loose. She always wears black. I often go shopping with my mother These watches are in Your top goes I like what I’ve Those trousers look Do they I don’t want it to be too She always . . . . . ? . in black. Which words are being defined? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 22.4 similar in fashion and fashionable wardrobe and changing room I’ll take it and I’ll leave it match something and go with something tight and loose fit someone and suit someone that’s a shame and that’s a pity be the right size fit not cheap, but not expensive a large cupboard for keeping clothes in popular with people at a particular time the place where you try on clothes in a shop Armani and Calvin Klein are examples of this a person who works in a shop look after customers and help them to buy things Complete the dialogues. SHOP ASSISTANT: Can I help you? CUSTOMER 1: I’m 1 looking for 2 SHOP ASSISTANT: Of course. The 3 a top. This one’s quite nice. I think I’ll it on. room is just over there. SHOP ASSISTANT: Do you need any help? CUSTOMER 2: No, I’m being 4 SHOP ASSISTANT: How was the top? CUSTOMER 1: I’m afraid it didn’t 5 6 , thanks. very well. It was a bit under the arms. SHOP ASSISTANT: Oh, that’s a . Would you like a bigger size? CUSTOMER 1: No, I don’t think so. In actual fact, it wasn’t just the 8 . 9 I don’t think it me, actually. I think it’s really for a younger 10 person. I’ll it, thanks. 7 22.5 Over to you Look at the text at the top of the opposite page again. Which statements are true for you? If possible, compare your answers with someone else. English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 51 23 A Shopping In a supermarket shelves sweets checkout basket trolley SHOPPING & MONEY How do supermarkets make us1 spend more money? They put fresh2 bread, as it smells lovely, near the entrance3 to make us feel hungry – and hungry shoppers spend more. They also rearrange things and put them in different places; this makes us spend more time in the store and that means spending more money. They put sweets and chocolate near the checkout, so it is easy to add bars of chocolate to our basket or trolley while we are waiting in the queue4. And they put the most expensive items5 on the middle shelves where you are more likely6 to see them. And be careful of special offers7, e.g. three for the price of two. People often buy more than they need and throw away half of it. 1 cause us to do or be something, e.g. I don’t like rain; it makes me depressed. just made/cooked 3 the place where you go into a building 4 a line of people who are waiting for something 5 an item is a single thing 6 If you are likely to do something, you will probably do it. 7 cheaper prices than normal 2 B Shopping centres and street markets Some people like modern shopping centres1 because everything is under one roof2 and it is convenient3. There’s a wide range4 of shops, and if there is anything wrong with something you buy, the shop will replace5 it, or give you a refund6. Other people prefer going to street markets because they like the atmosphere7 you get from the different stalls. Food and clothes are also usually cheaper in street markets. Sometimes you can try to agree a lower price for something you buy in a street market; we call this haggling. Of course, if you don’t like what you buy in a street market, you can’t normally take it back and get a refund. 1 large covered shopping areas 2 in one place 3 practical and easy to use 4 different things of the same type 52 5 stall exchange it for another one money that is paid back to you when you return something 7 the feeling in a place or situation 6 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate Exercises 23.1 True or false? If a sentence is false, change it to make it true. 1 If you have a lot of things to buy, you need a basket. False. If you have a lot of things to buy, you need a trolley. 2 Supermarkets arrange things to make us spend more money. 3 The checkout is where you pay for things. 4 Expensive items are on the top shelves. 5 If something is fresh, it has just been made. 6 There are often lovely smells near the entrance. 7 Sweets are often near the checkout. 8 It’s always a good idea to buy things on special offer. 23.2 Mark the main stress on these words. Use the index to help you. 'atmosphere 23.3 checkout entrance a refund replace item Are these statements true of shopping centres, street markets, or both? 1 2 3 4 5 6 23.4 convenient They are usually quite modern. Everything is under one roof. You buy things from stalls. You can haggle. You can normally get refunds. They can be very convenient. shopping centres Complete the sentences. I took the shoes back to the shop, but they wouldn’t give me a refund . It me angry when shops refuse to give you a refund or things. I often buy bananas but forget to eat them, and then I have to them away. When I got to the checkout, there was a long of people waiting. There’s a special on melons – buy one, get one free! The vegetables are near the , where we came in. I like that supermarket because they have a wide of meat and cheese. In my local street market, there’s just a really nice : it’s very busy, but everyone is friendly and there’s lots of colour. 9 I am more to buy something if it’s a special offer, because it seems cheaper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 23.5 Over to you Answer the questions. If possible, ask someone else the same questions. 1 How often do you shop in supermarkets? What do you think of them? 2 How often do you go to shopping centres? Do you like them? 3 How often do you go to street markets? Do you like them? 4 Do you haggle for things when you’re shopping? 5 Have you ever asked for a refund? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 53 24 A Food Fruit pineapple B C peach strawberry bunch of grapes olives pear melon lemon coconut beans peas onion garlic carrot mushrooms aubergine courgette pepper cabbage broccoli spinach Vegetables Salad A salad is usually a mixture of uncooked ingredients. In Britain it mainly has lettuce, as well as tomato, cucumber, onion, and other things. We often put salad dressing (usually oil and vinegar, or perhaps oil and lemon) on salad. lettuce D tomato cucumber oil vinegar Meat, fish and seafood Animal: Meat: cow beef calf [young cow] veal lamb [young sheep] lamb pig pork chicken/hen chicken A person who does not eat meat is a vegetarian. salmon 54 prawns English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate mussels crab Exercises 24.1 Write down one vegetable and fruit beginning with these letters. 1 2 3 4 5 24.2 the letter p the letter g the letter m the letter s the letter o vegetable Find a word from each box where the underlined letters are pronounced the same. carrot 1 lettuce aubergine 24.3 pork lettuce pork peach crab carrots tomato pork lamb melon 1 chicken mushroom veal cabbage lamb onion broccoli chicken salmon tomato beef pepper mussels beans beef cucumber crab courgette prawn aubergine salmon is a fish, the others are meat Do you usually eat the skin (the outside) of these fruits? (Answer Yes, Sometimes or No.) pi