მთავარი Karachay-Balkar vocabulary of proto-Turkic origin

Karachay-Balkar vocabulary of proto-Turkic origin

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Kraków: WN Księgarnia Akademicka, 2000. — 270 str. Studia Turcologica Cracoviensia, VII. ISBN 83-7188-356-0The aim of this work is a lexicological description of the old, Turkic stratum of Karachay-Balkar. The Karachay-Balkar material, selected from various sources, is presented against a historical-comparative background of other Turkic languages. This is the first attempt at such an analysis in a Turkic comparative frame in the field of Karachay-Balkar linguistics. Before we present a brief history of study on Karachay-Balkar we would like to focus on the basic data concerning the language, since, in different sources, one can meet various and sometimes misleading statements on this language.Целью данной работы является лексикологическое описание древнетюркской прослойки в карачаево-балкарском языке. Карачаево-балкарский материал, подобранный из различных источников, представлен в работе в историко-сравнительном аспекте по отношению к другим тюркским языкам. Данная работа - первая попытка подобного рода анализа в тюркской компаративистике в области карачаево-балкарской лингвистики.
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შეგიძლიათ დატოვოთ გამოხმაურება წიგნის შესახებ და გააზიაროთ თქვენი გამოცდილება. სხვა მკითხველისთვის საინტერესო იქნება თქვენი მოსაზრება წაკითხული წიგნების შესახებ. მიუხედავად იმისა მოგწონთ თუ არა წიგნი, მასზე გულწრფელი და დეტალური მსჯელობა, ადამიანებს მისცემს საშუალებას იპოვონ ახალი წიგნები, რომლებიც მათ დააინტერესებთ.




Cover design Grazyna Szczurowska Technical editor Agnieszka Kuczkiewicz-Fras Reviewer Stanistaw Stachowski © Copyright by Institute of Oriental Philology Jagielionian University Cracow 2000 This volume has appeared thanks to the financial support of the Jagielionian University's Department of Philology. Instytut Filologii Orientalnej Uniwersytet Jagiellonski 31-120 Krakow al. Mickiewicza 9/11 Tel. (48 12) 633 63 77 Fax (48 12)422-67-93 ISBN 83-7188-356 -0 KSI^GARNIA AKADEMICKA WYDAWNICTWO NAUKOWE 31-008 Krakow, ul. Sw. Annv 6 E-MAIL: KSAKADEM@CICERO.LAW.UJ.EDU .PL KATALOG: HTTP://WWW.CH .UJ .EDU.PL/KSIEGARNIA .HTML

TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 7 1. Foreword 7 2. Socio-linguistic data on Karachay-Balkar 7 3. A brief sketch of research on Karachay-Balkar 8 4. Sources 10 5. Transcription remarks 10 II. ABBREVIATIONS 13 1. Sources and cited literature 13 2. Languages and dialects 16 2.1. Turkic languages and dialects 16 2.2. Other languages 18 3. Other abbreviations 18 III. THE KARACHAY-BALKAR VOCABULARY 19 1. Nouns 20 1.1 . Kindred terms 20 1.2 . Other terms referring to man 26 1.3 . Parts of the body and body fluids 30 1.4 . Animals (mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians) 49 1.5 . Insects 61 1.6 . Some terms referring to animals 63 1.7 . Plants and words referring to them 69 1.8 . Minerals 76 1.9 . Nature, weather 77 1.10 . Some tools and elements used in human activity 88 1.11 . Names of some human activities and their results 101 1.12 . Seasons 103 1.13 . Time units and time of day 104 1.14 . Astronomical terminology 107 1.15 . Units of mea; sure 108 1.16 . Terms referring to space 108 1.17 . Terms referring to house and places for living 113 1.18 . Food 116 1.19 . Clothes 120 1.20 . Illnesses 122 1.21 . Customs 122 1.22 . Religious temiinology 123 1.23 . Abstract nouns 124

2. Adjectives 2.1 . Adjectives describing physical, exterior features 131 2.2 . Adjectives describing chemical, inner, abstract features 141 3. Numerals 150 4. Pronouns 155 4.1 . Personal 155 4.2 . Demonstrativa, interrogativa and others 157 5. Adverbs 159 6. Conjunctions 161 7. Particles 162 8. Postpositions 162 9. Verbs 164 9.1 . Verbs of action 165 9.2. Verbs of state 222 9.3 . Verbs referring to sense and expressing an abstract denotation 224 9.4 . The words bar, gok 234 IV. CONCLUSION 235 V. INDICES 239 1. Index of the Karachay-Balkar vocabulary 239 2. Index of the reconstructed forms 254 VI. LITERATURE 265

1. INTRODUCTION 1. FOREWORD The aim of this work is a lexicological description of the old, Turkic stratum of Karachay-Balkar. The Karachay-Balkar material, selected from various sources, is presented against a historical-comparative background of other Turkic languages. This is the first attempt at such an analysis in a Turkic comparative frame in the field of Karachay-Balkar linguistics. Before we present a brief history of study on Karachay-Balkar we would like to focus on the basic data concerning the language, since, in different sources, one can meet various and sometimes misleading statements on this language. 2. SOCIO -LINGUISTIC DATA Karachay-Balkar belongs to the Kipchak subgroup within Turkic languages (cf. Jaz. M 272). This is the official, literary language of two major communities i.e. Karachays and Balkars living in the North Caucasus. Despite the fact that these two communities belong ethnically and linguistically to one nation, due to historical and political reasons they live separately. The Karachays are settled in the Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast while the Balkars in Kabardino-Balkaria. This lack of administrative unity affected some erroneous terminology concerning the Karachay-Balkar nation and its language. Therefore, in some sources we can come across different terms for this self same language, e.g.: Balkar, Karachay and also Karachay-Balkar for the same notion (cf Al. SKB 8). According to the census of 1989 the number of Karachay-Balkar speakers is approximately 231000 (cf. Jaz. M 272). There are also some

Karachay and Balkar minorities living in ТиЛеу, Europe and the USA (cf. Seegmiller 4). Karachay-Balkar has three dialects. The first one called c-dialect can be characterized by the feature [с]. The second one is Karachay having the feature [c] and the third one is called mixed since it has features both from [c] and [c] dialects. The c-dialect is spoken in the vicinity of North Ossetia, the c'-dialect in the western part, and the mixed one in the central part of Central Caucasus (cf Al. SKB2I). 3. A BRIEF SKETCH OF RESEARCH ON KARACHAY-BALKAR The first information about Karachays and Balkars was given by the German traveller J. Klaproth after his journey to the Caucasus in 1807 and 1808. Also, at the end of the 19''' century the Caucasus peoples were described by Erckert in his work (cf Bask. Gil). The first research on Ihe language started only at the beginning of the 20"' century. The Russian schnlar N. A . Karaulov published in 1908 and 1912 two works concerning the Balkars and their language (cf. Boz. 5). Parallelly, the Hungarian orientalist W. Prohle, after his expeditions to the North Caucasus elaborated and edited the Karachay and Balkar material collected by him (Pr B, Pr K). These works are described in the paragraph: Sources. In 1930 the first grammar of Karachay-Balkar was published. It comprised the characteristics of phonetics, morphology, vocabulary and syntax. It also included data on dialects of Karachay-Balkar (cf Al. SKB 14). Since that time research on this language has begun to develop. In 1933 V. I . Abajev in "Jazyk i myslenije" published his article "Obscije elementy v jazyke osetin, balkarcev i karacajevcev (Iz materialov Balkaro-Karacajevskoj Ekspediciji Akademii Nauk SSSR 1930-33)". The article was reprinted in his work (Abajev OJ) in 1949 under the title "Pojezdka к verchovjam Kubani, Baksana i Cereka". Abajev presents in this paper Karachay-Balkar material in comparison with Ossetin parallels. The sixties brought editions of a descriptive grammar and a Russian- Karachay-Balkar dictionary (cf.: Al. SKB 15 -16). In 1962 Boziyev published his work (Boz.) concerning Balkar dialects. It will be discussed below. In 1972 work on Karachay-Balkar syntax was published by U. B. Alijev (Al. SKB). This comprehensive work discusses thoroughly the structure of Karachay-Balkar sentences and their types. All problems are illustrated with contemporary lexical material.

The subject of word formation was chosen by Chabicev in his two works (Chab., Chab. KB) concerning Karachay-Balkar and other languages of the Kipchak group. In 1976 a descriptive grammar edited by Baskakov was published (Bask. G). This comprehensive work comprises the phonetics, morphology and syntax of the modern Karachay-Balkar language. In 1996 Seegmiller published his work (Seegmiller) that gives a description of Karachay dialect referring mostly to general grammatical issues. Apart from the monographs mentioned above there are some articles that contribute to some selected issues concerning the Karachay-Balkar language, to mention just a few. Hebert (Hebert KPh.) in his articles deals with Karachay phonology; Otarov (Otarov LKBJ) and Ulakov (Ul.) take up some lexical problems. Chadzilajev (Chadz. KBBS, Chadz. KBVS) chooses the subject of some lexical parallels with other languages (Besermian, Hungarian). In presenting the history of research on Karachay-Balkar we cannot omit the question of mutual relations with other languages whose results are some loan words. There are two works by Schmidt (Schmidt O, Schmidt K) concerning Ossetin and Caucasian loan words in Karachay and also one article by Eren (Eren CTE) about some Caucasian-Turkic elements in Anatolian dialects. The work by Abajev (Abajev OJ) on Karachay-Balkar and Ossetin parallels was already men- tioned before. Abajev is also the author of a very comprehensive etymological dictionary of the Ossetin language (Abajev SOJ) that is valuable in research into Karachay-Balkar vocabulary. There is also a group of comparative works concerning Turkic languages where Karachay-Balkar is cited although it is not mentioned in their titles. Thus, there is work by Dybo (Dybo AE) dealing with some semantic reconstructions in Altaic etymology where Karachay-Balkar vocabulary is cited. Musajev in his work (Musajev LTJ) analyses the vocabulary of the western Kipchak group of Turkic languages in a comparative framework. The subject of kinship terms in Turkic languages is discussed by Yong-Song Li (TDAA). This work includes also Karachay-Balkar material. The article by Scerbak (Sc. NZTJ) dealing with terms denoting animals in Turkic languages includes Balkar words although not numerous. Frankle in her work (Franke WFTL) discussing the word formation in Turkic languages gives the examples of derivatives from Karachay-Balkar. We are sure that the above presented works are not everything published in this field, however we are also conscious that the Karachay-Balkar language as a subject of Turkological research still requires a better, more comprehensive elaboration. Therefore, the subject we chose for our work seems to be entirely justifiable, filling to a certain extent a lack of lexicological works, although it does not fulfil expectations concerning complex research in this field.

10 4. SOURCES The present work was prepared on the basis of four sources. Two of them are Prohle's works (Pr B, Pr K) from the beginning of the 20"" century. After his first expedition to the Caucasus in 1908 Prohle published in Keleti Szemle, t. X, Budapest 1909, pp. 83-150, the Karachay material arranged in the form of a dictionary with translation into German. The results of the second expedition in 1913 was "Balkarische Studien" published in Keleti Szemle, t. XV, Budapest 1914/15, pp. 165 -276. In this work Prohle gives apart from the material prepared in the form of a Balkar-German dictionary a sketch of Balkar grammar including phonetics, morphology, inllexion and other grammatical problems. The third source is the work by Boziyev (Boz.) concerning the dialects in Balkaria, their distribution and characteristic features. Apart from the basic information the work comprises about 40 texts written in these three dialects and translated into Russian. The last part constitutes the Balkar-Russian dictionary. The fourth source is the contemporary Karachay-Balkar-Russian dictionary (KBRS) published in 1989. This is the most comprehensive source comprising the material from the literary Karachay-Balkar language (831 pages). This dictionary gives also a short sketch of Karachay-Balkar grammar, list of geographic names and index of family names. As we can see the sources used in this work are not numerous since, as it was already mentioned, the Karachay-Balkar language has not been well elaborated and what is also important research in this field began only at the beginning of the 20"^ century, in talking about these sources we should mention the problem we faced during our work. This is the problem of transcription. Two sources (Boz., KBRS) are written in Cyrillic script whereas two others (Pr B, Pr K) are in Latin, however Prohle used in his works his own transcription, which in some cases is not compatible with the standard of the international transcription system (it will be discussed later). As for the sources written in Cyrillic script. Boziyev introduces the sign_v, which in KBRS has equivalent in^. These two signs stand for the phoneme [w]. The problem of proper transcription refers also to the sources of comparative material, where the authors describing different Turkic languages introduce different signs for this same phoneme and even they use their own transcription that is only seemingly based on the international one. 5. TRANSCRIPTION REMARKS In being faced with the difficulties presented above we are conscious that the transcription should be uniform. Therefore, taking into account the variety of languages, their phonetic differentiation and the various scripts used in the

sources we have introduced a phonological or rather half-phonological transcription' since not for all of the languages cited in this work phonological transcription is possible. Hence: - for [g], [g], [g] we use [g]; - in some forms there is also [y]; - for [k], [q] there is [k]; - for interdental Bask. [5] we use [z] and for [Э] we introduce [s]. These two phonetic signs we use only in citing reconstructed forms; - for labialized Uz. [a] we use [o] according to the modern orthography. In the case of [e] we use two signs: [ej and [ii] (open [e]). In Chuvash there are two signs for reduced vowels i.e.: [a] and [ё]. They cannot be substituted by other signs. In Salar and Yellow Uighur the aspirates are used in some forms. As was mentioned above in Prohle's work there are some additional signs. He introduced the ['] sign above the following letters: a, e, i, i, o, u, u. Above [i] he introduced a small circle that stands for [Т]. For: c, k, p, q, t he gave aspirate signs. Therefore, citing the material from Prohle's sources we give in brackets the original orthography he used but we transcribe it phonologically. Thus, all transcription signs used in the work are the following: а,a,a,a',a,S,a,a,a",3,b,b,p,c,c',_c.c,c\C,d,d',6,e,6,e',e,e, e,f,g,g,g, g,g',Y,X,X,h,1,i,i",1,T,T,1,i,i',T,T,i,j,i,k,k,k\I,Г,m,m,n,n,g,g,o,o',o, 6, б,5,6,6',6,fl,5,p,p",p,q,q",r,r,s,s",s,s, 9,t,t',t",u,u,u',u,D,5.u,Q,ii-, u, Q,u,V,V,w,z,z,3,i",3,z. Such a term was used by Stachowski in his StachM GJV 15.

п. ABBREVIATIONS 1. SOURCES AND CITED LITERATURE Abajev OJ Abajev, V. 1 . Osetinskij jazyk i fol'klor, I, Moskva-Leningrad 1949. Abajev SOJ Abajev, V. I. Istoriko-etymologiceskij slovar osetinskogo jazyka, t. I, Moskva-Leningrad 1958. Al. SKB Aiijev, U. В.: Sintaksis karacajevo-balkarskugo jazyka, Moskva 1972. Bask. G Baskakov, N. A. (Red.): Grammalika karacajevo-balkarskogu jazyka. Fonetika. morfologija, sinlaksis,'NaYcik 1976. Bask. NJa. Baskakov, N. A.: Nogajskij jazyk i jego dialekty, Moskva- Leningrad 1940. Bask. JpU Baskakov, N. A.: Jazyk priissykkulskich ujgurov, Alma-Ata 1978. Boz. Bozijev A. J .: Materialy i issleciovanija po balkarskoj dialek- tologii, leksike ifulkloru,^dLXc\k 1962. Chab. Chabicev, M. A.: Imennoje slovoobrazovanije i formoobrazo- vanije v kumanskich jazykach, Moskva 1989. Chab. KB Chabicev, M. A.: Karacajevo-balkarskoje imennoje slovo- obrazovanije, Cerkessk 1971. Chadz. KBBS Chadzilajev, H-M. !.: О karacajevo-balkarskich i besermian- skich leksiceskich schozdenijach, Sovetskaja Tjurkologija 2, 1989, pp. 76 -80 .

14 Chadz. KBVS Clauson CRS Docrfer LSCh DS DTS Dybo AE Eg. Eren CTE ESTJa Frankle WFTL Gab. Hebert KPh. Jaz. M JUFD Kakuk Chadzilajev, H-M. 1 .: Karacajevo-balkarskije i vengerskije schozdenija, in; Aktual'nyje problemy kamcajevo-balkarskogo i nogajskogo jazykov, Stavropol' 1981. Clauson, G.: An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-lhirteenth- century Turkish, Oxford 1972. Skvorcov, M. I . (Red.): Cuvassko-russkij slovar, Moskva 1985. Doerfer, G.: Lexik und Sprachgeographie des Chaladsch. Texthand, Wiesbaden 1987. Tiirkiye 'de halk agzmdan derleme sdzliigii, I A, Ankara 1963. Nadeijajev, V. M. et al. (Red.): Drevnetjurkskij slovar, Leningrad 1969. Dybo, A. v .: Semanticeskaja rekonstrukcja v allajskoj etimo- logii. Somaticeskije terminy (plecevojpojas), Moskva 1996. Egorov, V. G.: Etimologiceskij slovar cuvasskogo jazyka, Ceboksary 1964. Eren, H.: Caucasian-Turkic Elements in the Anatolian Dialects. Studia Caucaica 1 (1963), pp. 94-126. Sevortjan, E. V., Etimologiceskij slovar tjurkskich jazykov. Vol. I: Obscetjurkskije i meztjurkskije osnovy na glasnyje, Moskva 1974; Vol. II: (...) na bukvu "b", Moskva 1978; Vol. Ill: (...) na bukvy "v", ''g', "d", Moskva 1980; Vol. IV: [& Levitskaja, L. S.]: (...) na bukvy "g", "z", 'j", Moskva 1989; Vol. V: [& Levitskaja, L. S., Dybo, A. V., Rassadin, V. I.]: (...)na bukvy '•k"(~"g")i "k" (~"k" -'k"), Moskva 1997. Frankle, E.: Word Formation in the Turkic Languages, Columbia University Press 1948. Gabain, A. мon: Altturkische Grammatik, Leipzig 1950. Hebert, R. J .: Karacay Phonology, UAS. vol. 13 (1962), pp. 97-113. Jazyki mira. Tjurkskijejazyki, Moskva 1997. Sadvakasov, T. S.: Jazyk ujgurov Ferganskoj doliny. Ocerk fonetiki, teksty i slovar, Alma-Ata 1970. Kakuk, Z., Mai torok nyelvek, 1, Budapest 1976.

15 KBRS Tenisev, E. R., Sujuncev, Ch. I. (Red.): Karacajevo-balkar- sko-russkij slovar, Moskva 1989. Kononov RT Kononov, A. N., Rodoslovnaja Turkmen, Moskva- Leningrad 1958. KRPS Karaimsko-russko-porskiJ slovar, Mosk\a 1974. Malov Malov, S. E.: Lobnorskij jazyk. Teksty. perevudy, slovai\ Frunze 1956. Musajev LTJ Musajev, K. M .: Leksika tjurkskich jazykuv v sravnilel'num osvescenii (ZapaJnokipcabkaJa gruppa), Moskva 1975. Otarov LKBJ Otarov, I. M .: К izuceniju professjonalnoj leksiki karacajevo- balkarskogo jazyka, Sovetskaja Tjurkologija 3 (1977), pp. 45 - 50. OjHa. Nemeth, G.: Az osjakut hangtan alapjai. AVA: XLIII (1914), 3- 81. Podolsky Podolsky, В., A Greek Tatar-English Glossary, Wiesbaden 1985. Pr. Pritsak, O.: Das Karatschaische und Balkarische, Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta, t. 1, Wiesbaden 1959, pp. 340-368. PrВ Prohle, W.: Balkarische Studien, Keleti Szemle, XV (1914/ 15), pp. 165 -276. PrК Prohle, W.: Karatschajisches Worterverzeichnis, Keleti Szemle, t. X(i909), pp. 83-150. Rass. Rassadin, V. I.: Fonetika i leksika tofalarskogo jazyka, Ulan- Ude 1971. Ras. VEWT Rasanen, M.: Versuch eines elymologischen Worterbuchs der Tiirksprachen (Lexica Societatis Fenno-Ugricae XVII/1), Helsinki 1969. Schmidt К Schmidt, G., Uber die kaukasischen Lehnworter des Karat- schajischen, Memoires de la Societe Finno-Ougrienne 67, Helsinki 1933, pp. 465 -471 . Schmidt О Schmidt, G.: Uber die ossetischen Lehnworter im Karatscha- jischen, Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae 27, Helsinki 1932, pp. 364 -395 .

16 Seegmiller Seegmiller, S.: Karachay. Languages of the World, MLinchen- Newcastle 1996. Scv. STJ Sevortjan E. V. et al. (Red.): Struktwa i istorija tjurkskich jazykov, Moskva 1971. SKT Baskakov, N. A.: Ob osobennostjach govora severo-kavkaz- skich turkmenov (truchmenov). Jazyki Severnogo Kavkaza i Dugestana. Shornik lingvisticeskich issledovanij, vyp. 2, Moskva-Leningrad 1949, pp. 140-182. StachM GJV Slachowski, M.: Gesehichle des jakutischen Vokalismus, Krakow 1993. Sul. Kkar. Sulimowicz, J., Material leksykalny krymskokaraimskiego zabytku jsjzykowego (druk z 1734), Rocznik Orientalistyczny, T. XXXVl (1973), z. I, pp. 47-107. Sc. SF Scerbak, A. M .: Sravnitel'naja fonelika tjurkskich jazykov, Leningrad 1970. Sc. NZTJ Scerbak, A. M .: Nazvanija domasnich i dikich zivolnych v tjurkskich jazykach, pp. 82-172, Istoriceskoje raz\'itie leksiki tjurkskich jazykov, Moskva 1961. TDAA Yong Song Li: Tiirk dillerinde akrahahk adlari, Istanbul 1999. Tenisev Tenisev, E. R.: Stroj salarskogo jazyka, Moskva 1976. Tenisev SJ Tenisev, E. R.: Stroj sary-jugurskogo jazyka, Moskva 1976. Ul. Ulakov, M. Z .: Problemy soversenstvovanija i unifikacii kniznych terminov sovremennogo karacajevo-balkarskogo jazyka, Sovetskaja Tjurkologija 2 (1990), pp. 95-97. YRh. New Redhouse Turkish-English Dictionary, Istanbul 1981. 2. LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS 2Л. Turkic languages and dialects Alt. Altai Alt. (V) (V) dialect of Altai Az. Azerbaijani В Balkar dialect Baks. Balkar dialect of Baksany valley Balk. dialect of Balkar valley

Bask. Bashkir В. dial. Balkar dialects Ceg. Balkar dialect of Chegem valley Cuv. Chuvash Gag. Gagauz К Karachay dialect Kar. (Cr.) Karaim (Crimea) Kar. (H) Karaim (Halicz) Kar. (T) Karaim (Troki) Kas. Balkar dialect of Kashkatau Kaz. Kazakh K-B Karachay-Balkar Khak. Khakas Khal. Khalaj Khul. -Bez. Balkar dialect of Khulamy - Bezengi valley Kir. Kyrghyz Kklp. Karakalpak Kum. Kumyk Lob. Lobnor Nog. Nogai NYak. New Yakut Oir. Oirot ОТ Old Turkic Ott. Ottoman Turkish PT Proto-Turkic Sal. Salar Sor. Shor T. Turkic Tat. Tatar Tat. (Cr.) Tatar (Crimea) Tat. (Kaz.) Tatar (Kazan) Tat. (Sib.) Tatar (Siberia) Tat. (Turn.) Tatar (Tumen) Tat. (Ur.) Tatar (Urum) Tof. Tofalar Trkm. Turkmen Trukh. Trukhmen Tur. Turkish Tuv. Tuvinian Uig. Uighur Uz. Uzbek

Uz. (S) Yak. Y.Uig. Uzbek(S) Yakut Yellow Uighur 2.2. Other languages Chin. Chinese Mong. Mongolian Pers. Persian Russ. Russian 3. OTHER ABBREVIATIONS AH Abu Hayyan dietionary arch. archaic cf. confer = compare dial. dialectal form e.g . exempli gratia = for example fig. figurative i.e . idest=thatis Istanb. dial. dialect of Istanbul KB Kutadgu Bilig lit. literature MK Mahmud Kasgari dictionary p. person pi. plural prob. probably sg. singular south. southern suf. suffix YE Yunus Emre Zamahs. Zamahsari dictionary

18 Uz. (S) Yak. Y.Uig. Uzbek(S) Yakut Yellow Uighur 2.2. Other languages Chin. Chinese Mong. Mongolian Pers. Russ. Persian Russian 3. OTHER ABBREVIATIONS AH Abu Hayyan dictionary arch. archaic cf. confer = compare dial. dialectal form e.g . exempli gratia = for example fig. figurative i.e . idest=thatis Istanb. dial. dialect of Istanbul KB Kutadgu Bilig lit. literature MK Mahmud Kasgari dictionary p. person pi. plural prob. probably sg. singular south. southern suf. suffix YE Yunus Emre Zamahs. Zamahsari dictionary

III. KARACHAY-BALKAR VOCABULARY The lexical material selected from the above presented sources constitutes the subject of our study, in selecting the material we took into account only simple words in terms of their structure and those unmotivated, whose derivational structure is unclear. The Karachay-Balkar material is presented according to a division into parts of speech. Thus, there are the following groups: I. Nouns; 2. Adjectives; 3. Nume- rals; 4. Pronouns; 5. Adverbs; 6. Conjunctions; 7. Particles; 8. Postpositions; 9. Verbs. Within some of these groups (i.e . nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs) a further division was done according to a semantic criterion. The aim of such a classification is to show the different grammatical and semantic strata that could have existed already at the early stage of development of the language. Such a supposition we can make based on the comparative analysis of other languages and historical sources. However, we are conscious that the classification into parts of speech in some cases is possible only to a certain extent. This refers mostly to the division within nouns and adjectives. We can come across in Karachay-Balkar many examples of nouns with both substantival and adjectival denotation. This same refers to adjectives, which are often given with both adjectival and adverbial meaning. Therefore, in both grammatical and semantic classification we take as a criterion the basic meaning of a word.

20 1. NOUNS The Karachay-Balkar material comprising substantives is presented in several semantic groups. These are the semantic groups: 1.1. Kindred terms akka (K-B) 'I. ded, deduska; 2. starik' (KBRS 41); akka (aqqa-, Kf 'Grossvater' (Pr К 86) < PT *aka; cf.: ОТ egd, ejci, igd, ija; Az. agw, Tur. agw, Khal. dkci'. Gag. agw, Kar. (Cr.) akw. Tat. (Ur.) akw, Cuv. akka'. Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog aga; Kir. ake; Trkm. agw, Uz. aka-, Uig. akw, Lob. aka', Y. Uig. aka, eke-, Alt. aka, aga; Khak. aga; Tuv. akr, Tof. e; Sor. akka; Yak. aga. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 38, 286; DTS 165, 167, 204, 205; Eg. 23; ESTJa 1121; KRPS 58; Rass. 183; Ras. VEWT 13a. This word has equivalents in ОТ and modern Turkic languages. However, from the semantic point of view the present languages are not consistent. Historically the oldest forms of the word had the meaning 'I. owner, master; 2. idd, deity' (cf. DTS). At present there are several meanings referring to this word, generally connected with kinship, e.g.: 1. elder sister, aunt (in Cuv.); 2. father's sister, aunt (Khal.); 3. elder brother, uncle (Uz., Trkm.); 4. grandfather (Khak.); 5. elder brother, uncle (Az., Gag., Kir., Tat., Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog. Yak.); 6. master, landlord (Tur.) . ana (K-B) 'mat'; matka' (KBRS 63); anija '1. mat', mama; 2. babuska' (ibid. 65); ana (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg., Kas.) 'mat" (Boz. 165); ana (K) 'Mutter' (Pr К 87); ana (and; B) 'Mutter' (Pr В 201) < PT *dnd-, cf: ОТ ana; Kum., Az. ana; Tur. ana, anne (Istanb. dial.); Gag. ana; Kar. (Cr., H, T) ana; Tat. ana, dni, dnnd; Tat. (Cr. Ur.) ana; Cuv. anne, ani; Bask, ind; Kaz. ana, ene; Kklp. ene, ana; Kir. ene; Trkm. ene; Trukh. ana; Uz. una; Uig. ana; Lob. and, ene, ana; Sal. ena, eno, anna, amma, ami, ama; Y. Uig. ana; Alt. ene; Khak. ind; Tuv. ene, ije; Sor. ene; Yak. i^d. - Lit.: DTS 43; Eg. 28; ESTJa I 278; Gab. 294; KRPS 67; Malov 89, 108; Podolsky 1; SKT 177; StachM GJV 63; Sul. Kkar. 50; Tenisev 325; Tenisev SJ 172. The word is confirmed both in ОТ and in modern Turkic languages. Us main meaning is 'mother, mum; grandmother', however in several modern languages it has a different meaning. Cf.: Tuv. ene 'aunt'; Cuv. ani 'mother-in-law'. _ appa (K-B) '1. ded, deduska; 2. deduska; 3. papa' (KBRS 69); apha (B. dial.: Ceg.) 'deduska' (Boz. 165) < PT *dpa (? < *appa); *aha; cf: ОТ aha, ара; Az. dial, aha, ahaj, ab'ij; Khal. dbd; Tur. dial, aba, abba, abu, ava; Tat. (Sib.) awa; Cuv. appa; Bask, ара, apaj; Kir. aba; Trkm. dial, aba; Uz. opa; Uig. ара; ' The material taken from Prohle's sources is given in brackets in its original orthogra- phy unless it is the same as in other sources.

21 Lob. ava; Sal. aha, api, avw, Y. Uig. ava, Alt. aba-, Khak. aba', Tuv. «va; Yak. ubaj. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 35, 37, 286; DTS 1, 47; Eg. 30; ESTJa I 54; Gab. 294; JUFD 168; Malov 79; StacliM GJV 20; Tenisev 279, 291, 297. The word appa has equivalents both in ОТ and in modern languages. In K-B the basic meaning refers to the elder person in a family: father, uncle, grandfather, ancestor. However, in other Turkic languages, also ОТ, this name refers not only to a male elder person but to a female as well, i.e.: 'mother, aunt, elder sister', cf.: DTS 1, 47; Eg. 30; Gab. 294. This word is also known with the meaning 'bear', cf.: aba (DTS I); Cuv. upa-, Khak. oba (Eg. 274). ata (K-B) 'otec, predok' (KBRS 85), alas 'otec' (ibid. 88), attja ' I. papa, otec; tjatja. 2. ded' (ibid. 90); ata (B. dial.: Balk., Ceg., Kas., Khul. -Bez.) 'otec' (Boz. 165); ata {afcc, K) 'Vater' (Pr К 89); ata {ata-, B) 'Vater' (Pr В 203) < PT *ata-, cf: ОТ ata\ Kum., Az., Tur., Kar. (Cr., H, T), TaL, Tat. (Cr., Ur.) atw, Cuv. atte, dial.: atr. Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir., Trkm., Trukh. ata\ Uz. ota; Uig. ata-. Lob. ata, аса', Sal. eto-, Y. Uig. ata-, Alt. ada, аса-, Khak. ada, aba-, Tuv. ada, аса-, Tof ada. - Lit.: DTS 65; Eg. 36; ESTJa I 200; KRPS 83; Malov 87, 88; Podolsky 2; Rass. 151; SKT 177; Sul. Kkar. 52; Tenisev 328. The word ata denoting 'father; ancestor; grandfather' is widely known in most modern Turkic languages. It was also confirmed in ОТ sources. baba (K-B)' 1. predok, ded; 2. obrasc. rebionka к babuske; baba' (KBRS 109) < PT *baba (ESG)^ cf.: ОТ baba-, Az. baba-, Khal. baba-, Tur. baba-. Gag. boba-, Kar. (Cr.), Tat., Tat. (Ur.) baba-. Bask, baba, babaf, Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. baba-, Trkm. baba-, Uz. bobcr, Uig. baba, bova-. Lob. buva, bova-, 'S>-d.\. paba, pavo, pa-, Alt. poba-, Khak. paba-, Tof baba. - Lit.: Bask. NJa. 236; Doerfer LSCh 34, 278; DTS 76; ESTJa II 10; KRPS 93; Malov 89, 94; Podolsky 3; Tenisev 434, 439, 450. This is a term referring to family relations. It denotes 'ancestor; grandfather; father', however in Karachay-Balkar it means only 'ancestor, grandfather'. It was known both in ОТ and it has equivalents in some modern Turkic languages. bala (K-B)' I. ditja, rebionok; 2. detionys, ptenec' (KBRS I 15); bala (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg., Khul. - Bez.) 'ditja, rebionok' (Boz. 166); bala (K) 'Kind, Junges' (Pr К 91); bala {bala-, B) Kind., Junges (von Tieren)' (Pr В 205) < PT *bala-, cf: ОТ bala-, Kum. bala-, Az. bala, balat, Tur., Kar. (Cr., H, T), Tat. (Cr., Ur.), Tat., Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. bala-, Trkm. bala, bala-, Uz. bola-, Uig. bala-. Lob. bala, vala-, Sal. bala, pala, pala, vala-, Y. Uig. tnula, mla, rnle. ^ The reconstructed forms are cited from the sources as: Eg., ESTJa 1-V, Ras. VEWT, StachM GJV, Sc. SF. In cases where there is no reconstructed form for the analysed word given in the above sources I have given my own proposition of the reconstructed form (ESG).

22 mila-, MLpala-, Khak./?a/a; Sov.pala. - Lit.: Bask. .IpU 40; DTS 80; ESTJa II 47; KRPS 100; Malov 91, 97; Podolsky 4; Tenisev 300,435/6, 540; Tenisev SJ 192. Bala 'child; little; youth: a young animaP is a common word in Turkic languages. In some of them it appears in phonetic variants. With the same meaning it is registered in Old Turkic sources. As far as its origin is concerned there are some conceptions about the Indo-European borrowing, cf. ESTJa II 49. egec (K-B) 'sestra' (KBRS 763); egec (B. dial.: Ceg.) 'sestra' (Boz. 170); egecjegec {egecjegec; K) 'Schwester' (Pr К 100); egec, eges {egec, eges; B) 'id.' (Pr В 218) < PT *dkac (ESG); cf: ОТ ekdc; Khal. dkiici; Cuv. akka; dial. aki ~ akaj; Trkm. ekegi", eckeci (Eg. 23); Uz. egacr, Khak. igcicr. Yak. agas. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 41,286; DTS 167; Eg. 23; ESTJa 1 222; Ras. VEWT 38 a. The word egec in K-B means 'sister'. It is registered in the form ekdc in ОТ with the meaning 'a clever girl'. The noun has its counterparts (in different variants) in some other Turkic languages with the following meanings: 'elder sister' (Trkm., Uz., Yak.); 'a sister, an aunt' (Cuv.); 'a sister in law' (Khal., Khak.) . egiz (K-B) 'bliznec' (KBRS 763); egiz (B. dial.: Ceg.) 'id.' (Boz. 170); egiz,jegiz {egiz, jegiz; K) 'Zwilling' (Pr К 100); egiz (B) 'id.' (Pr В 218) < PT *ikiz, *dkiz (ESG); cf: ОТ ekiz; ikkiz (MK); Kum. egiz-, Az. dkiz', Tur., Gag. ikiz", Kar. (Cr.) egiz- . Tat. igez, igezdk, iglz (ESTJa I 252); Tat. (Cr.) ekiz-, Cm.jeker, Bask iglz; igez (Eg.77); Kaz. egiz', Kklp., Nog., Kir. egiz-, Trkm. ekiz-, Uz. egiz, egizak; Uz. (S) igiz-, Alt. (V) egis, igis-, Oir. egis-, Khak. ihis', Tuv. yw; Sor. igis-, cf. also Yak. ikir, igird, igiri, igirie < Mong. - Lit.: DTS 168, 207; Eg. 77; ESTJa I 252; KRPS 653. The word egiz 'twins' is registered in ОТ in the forms ekiz, ikkiz and has its equivalents in some other Turkic languages. The forms in Yakut come from Mongolian, cf. ESTJa I 252. As for the structure this is a derivative formed from the numeral 'two' with the suffix -z showing the evenness, cf. ESTJa I 253. er (K-B) ' 1. muz, suprug; xozjain; 2. muzcina' (KBRS 770); er (B. dial.: Balk., Ceg.), eri (Baks.) 'muz, muzcina; suprug' (Boz. 170); er,jer (K) 'Mann, Gatte' (Pr К 101); er (B) 'id.' (Pr В 219) < PT *а>; cf: ОТ er, Kum. er, Az. dr, Tur., Kar. (Cr., H, T), Tat. (Cr. Ur.) er. Tat. />; Cuv. ar . Bask. />; Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. er, Trkm. ar, Trukh. er, Uz. er, Uig. dr. Lob. ej-, Sal. er, ir, Y. Uig.je/', er, Alt. er, Khak. ir, Tuv. er, Tof er. Yak. er. - Lit.: DTS 175; Eg. 30; ESTJa I 321; KRPS 665; OjHa. 22; Podolsky 10; Rass. 182; SKT 182; Sc. SF 194; Tenisev 326, 560; Tenisev SJ 183. The word er 'man' according to Egorov (Eg. 30) is one of the oldest Turkic words and it is registered in almost all Turkic languages, in ОТ and other representatives of Altaic family. erkek (K-B) '1. samec; osoba muzskogo roda; 2. muzcina; 3. (B) petux; 4. zadnij proxod' (KBRS 772); erkek (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg.) 'samec' (Boz.

23 170); erkekjerkek (erl^ekjertek; К) 'mannlich' (Pr К 101); erkek, erkex, erkeg (erkek, erkex, erkeg-, B) 'mannlich, Mannsbild' (Pr В 219) < PT *erkek~ *irkek-, cf.: ОТ erkak, irkdk; Kum. erkek; Az. erkdk; Tur. erkek; Gag. jerkek; Kar. (Cr.) erkak, erkek, (H) erkek, (T) erkak; Tat. irkak; Tat. (Cr.) erkek; Bask, irkak; Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir., Trkm. erkek; Uz. erkak; Uig. a(r)kak; Y. Uig. hrkik, erkek; Lob. ejkek, ejkej; Alt. erkek; Khak. irgek; Tuv. irgek; Tof. irhek; Sor. argak; Yak. irgex. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 40; DTS 179, 212; ESTJa 1 297; KRPS 666, 667; OjHa. 27; Rass. 201;Tenisev SJ 181. The word erkek 'male; man. 2. cock (B)' was registered in ОТ in two forms: erkcik, irkdk and at present it has its equivalents in some Turkic languages. In some cases there are some semantic differences in comparison to K-B, e.g .: Yak. irgex 'Mannchen' (OjHa. 27); Tof. irhek 'samec sobola ili medvedia' (Rass. 201). gas (K-B) I 'syn; malcik; pareh'. II '1. molodoj, neopytnyj, malciseskij'. Ill 'sleza' (KBRS 237); zas (B. dial.: Baks., Ceg., Kas., Khul.- Bez.) 'paren, junosa, molodoj celovek' (Boz. 171); gas, zas (Baks.) 'molodoj, junosa, paren' (ibid. 172); zas (Balk.), zas (Ceg.), zas, zas (Kas.) 'paren, junosa' (ibid. 173); zas (Balk.) 'svezest', socnyj' (ibid. 173); gas (jas; K) 'jung, Jahr, Lebensalter, Sohn, Knabe' (Pr К 147); zas (B) 'feucht, frisch, saftig, Feuchtigkeit, Saft' (Pr В 270); zas (B) 'Kind, Knabe, Jungling' (ibid. 270) < PT *jas (StachM GJV 41); *ва£- (Sc. SF 196); cf.: ОТ jas; Kum., Az. jas; Khal.joi"; Tur., Gag. jas; Kar. (Cr.) jas, jes, (H) jas, (T) jas; Cuv. Ы (in: kussul); Tat. (Cr., Ur.) jas; Tat.ydi; Bask.yui; Kaz., Kklp. zas; ^og.jas; Kir. gas; Trkm. jiii; \3z.jos; Uig., Loh. jas; Sa\. jas; Y.Uig. jas, ja^s; Alt. das; Khak. cas; Tuv. cas; Tof. cet, Sor. cas; Yak. sas . - Lit.: Bask. JpU 42; Doerfer LSCh 116, 317; DTS 245, 246; Eg. 120; ESTJa IV 161; KRPS 237, 242, 278; Malov 1 19; Podolsky 32; Rass. 196; StachM GJV 41; Sc. SF 196; Tenisev 349; Tenisev SJ 183. The word gas in K-B has several meanings i.e .: '1. young boy; son; 2. young; youngster'; 3. 'fresh'; 4. 'age'; 5. 'tear'. The form jas in ОТ had also those meanings. At present the word has its equivalents in numerous Turkic languages, where the above presented meanings appear but in a different way in different languages. This problem refers to the discussion around the question of homonymy. Scerbak (Sc. SF 196) suggests the existence of two homonymous words presenting two archetypes ^Oas with two different meanings: 1. 'tear'; 2. 'young; age'. Other specialists consider this lexeme to be a multisemantic word, cf. ESTJa IV 162. inna (B.) 'babuska; staruxa' (KBRS 758); inna (B. dial.: Baks.) 'babuska; matuska' (Boz. 174); inna {inna; B) 'Mutter, Mutterchen' (Pr В 226) < PT (?) *dna; cf.: ОТ ana; Kum. ene, ana; Az., Tur., Gag., Kar. (Cr., H, T), Tat. (Cr., U) ana; Tat. ana, anna; Cuv. anne, ama; Bask, ind; Kaz., Kir. ene; Kklp. ana, ene; Trkm. ene; Uz. ona; Uig. ana, and, end; Lob. and, ene; Sal. ana, ama.

24 ami, anna-, Y. Dig. ana', Alt. enc, Khak. ind; Tuv. ifd; Sor. ene; Yak. ijd. - Lit.: DTS 43; Eg. 25, 28; ESTJa I 278; JUFD 168; KRPS 67; Malov 89, 108; Podolsky 1; StachM GJV 63; Sul. Kkar. 50; Tenisev SJ 172. The Balkar word inna 'grandma; mum' has its equivalents in most of Turkic languages (in different phonetic forms). The ОТ sources register the form ana. As far as the etymology is concerned some specialists consider the word to be an imitative one, cf ESTJa I 281. kajin (K-B) '1. surin; dever; 2. rodstvennik po muzu (zene)' (KBRS 379); kajin (B. dial.: Balk.) 'surin' (Boz. 177); kajin (q^ajin; K) 'Schwager, der Bruder des Mannes' (Pr К 113); kajin {qajin; B) 'Schwager, Schwieger-; (Pr В 233) < PT *ka6in\ cf.: ОТ kaSin, kaclin, kajin, kazin; Kum. kajin, kajin', Az. gajin-, Khal. gadun; Tur. kajin-, Kar. (Cr., T) kajn-. Tat. kajin-, Cuv. xum xunam-. Bask. kajni-, Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. kajin-, Trkm. gdjin-, Uz. kajin-, Uig. kejin-. Lob. kain-, Sal. kajna-, Y. Uig. kazin-, Alt. kajin-, Khak. xazin, xastv, Tuv. katv, Tof. xattv, Sor. kazin. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 41, 288; DTS 402, 404, 407, 439; Eg. 304; ESTJa V 215; KRPS 283, 358; Malov 124; Ras. VEWT218 a; Tenisev 374. In K-B the word kajin denotes 'brother-in-law; relative of husband (wife)'. In ОТ there were several forms confirmed: kaSin, kadin, kajin, kazin - all with the meaning 'father-in-law'. At present, in other Turkic languages there are equivalents of this word. Generally, in all Turkic languages, where this term is confirmed, it denotes relatives, either from the husband or from the wife's side. In Cuv. the form xun appears only with the possessive suffix 1 sg i.e.: xunam 'my father-in-law'. As for the etymology, according to ESTJa V 216, yet to be estab- lished. karnas (K-B) 'brat' (KBRS 395); karindas (B) 'id.' (ibid. 397); karindas, karnas (B. dial.: Balk., Kas., Khul. - Bez.) 'brat' (Boz. 177); karinda.i {qarindds-, B) 'Bruder' (Pr В 235) < PT * karindas-, cf.: ОТ karindas, karunda.s-, Kum. karday, Az. gardas-, Tur. kardas ~ kardes-. Gag. karday, Kar. (Cr.) kardas, (H) karandas, karindas (T) kardas, karandas, karinday. Tat. (Ur.) xarday. Tat. karday, Cuv. xurantay. Bask, karindas, karzdy, Kaz. karindas-. Nog. karday, Kir. karinday, Trkm. garinday, Uz. kardas, karindoy, Uig. kerinday, Sal. karinlas, karintas; All. karinday, Khak. xarindas-, Sor. karindas. - Lit.: DTS 427, 430; Eg. 308; ESTJa V 322-323; KRPS 292, 293, 295; Podolsky 28; Sul. Kkar. 88; Tenisev 462. The words karindas, karnas 'brother' have their equivalents in other Turkic languages with the meaning 'brother' or 'sister'. The K-B form karnas is probably a shortened form from karinday, also in other Turkic languages there are shorter forms kardas and forms karinday In ОТ there were two forms registered: karindas, karundas. Judging by the structure of the word we may claim that this is a derivative formed < karin + -das.

25 kiz (К-В) '1. devuska; 2. doc; 3. nevesta; 4. dama' (KBRS 435); kiz (B. dial.: Baks., Ceg., Kas., Khul. -Bez.) 'devuska, doc' (Boz. 178); kiz iq4z; K) 'Madchen, Tochter, Jungfrau' (Pr К 118); kiz (qiz\ B) 'id.' (Pr В 238) < PT *kls (Sc. SF 194); *kiz (StachM GJV 103); cf.: ОТ kis, kiz- Az. giz- Khal. kiz', Tur.. Kar. (Cr., H, T) kiz-, Tat. (Ur.) xzz; Tat. A/z; Cuv. xer. Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. kiz-, Trkm. ^fr; Trukh. kijz-, Uz., Uig. kiz-, kiz (Rass. 223); Lob. kiz, kif, Sal. kiz, ¥iz-, Y. Uig. kiz, kis, giz-, Alt. kis', Khak. хлу; Tuv., Tof. kis- . Yak. kis. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 36, 306; DTS 447, 449; Eg. 298; KRPS 377, 383; Malov 132, 133; OjHa. 29; Podolsky 30; Rass. 223; Ras. VEWT 269 a; SKT 180; StachM GJV 103; Sc. SF 194; Tenisev 466, 457; Tenisev SJ 179, 201. The lexeme kiz 'girl; daughter' has its equivalents (in different phonetic variants) in other Turkic languages. The ОТ sources registered the following forms: kis, kiz. kujew (K) 'zjaf' (KBRS 361), kijew (B) 'id.' (ibid. 346); kijcu (B. dial.: Ceg.) 'zjaf, zenix' (Boz. 175); kiijoU {k'tijdii-, K) 'Schwiegersohn, Schwager' (Pr К 1 12); kijeii (kijeii-, B) 'Schwiegersohn, Schwager, Brautigam' (Pr В 229) < PT *kuSdgu-, cf.: ОТ kiidcigu, kiiScigii-, Kum. gijdv, gijev-, Az. kiirdkcin, dial.: kijdv-, Khal. ktidaji-, Tur. giivej; Gag. giive-, Kar. (Cr.) kiijiiv, kiijev, kijuv, kijiv, gujev, guveji, (H) kijev, (T) kijov, Tat. (Cr.) giijdv-. Tat. kijdw-, Cuv. кёги < kerev. Bask. kt'jdii-, kijdii (Rass. 192); Kaz., Kklp. kiijew-, kiijeii (Eg. 109); Nog. kiJev-, Kir. kiijS, ktijdv-, Trkm. gijev, kiireken; Trukh. giijdv, kujdv-, Uz. kiijow, kujov; Uig. ktijogul, kujav. Lob. kiijii, kiij ogul, Sal. kdj, kuj-, Y. Uig. kiizegi, kuzegi, kuzigr, Alt. kiijii, ktijo-, Khak. kizo, kiizc'-, Tuv. kiicle', Tof hiidd-, Sor. kiiza-. Yak. kiitiid. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 40, 298; DTS 324; Eg. 109; ESTJa III 43; JUFD 204; KRPS 161, 317, 318, 352; Malov 138; OjHa. 44; Rass. 192; SKT 178, 179; StachM GJV 67; Tenisev 391, 395; Tenisev SJ 188, 201. The K-B word kiijew, kijew, kiijuii '1. son -in-law; 2. brother-in-law; 3. fiance' has counterparts in other Turkic languages in different phonetic variants. In ОТ sources the forms: kiiddgii, kiiSdgii were registered. oge (K-B) 'nerodnoj, svodnyj' (KBRS 274); oge: uge-ana {dge-aticf, K) 'Stiefmutter' (Pr К 127), oge-ata {oge-at'd-, K) 'Stiefvater' (ibid. 127), oge-kiz (dge-q'iz-, K) 'Stieftochter' (ibid. 127), oge-gas (oge-jas-, K) 'stiefsohn' (ibid. 127) < PT *dgej (ESG); cf.: ОТ dgdj-, Kum. ogej-, Az. dgdj-, Tur. iivej-, Gag.jMva; Kar. (Cr.) ogej, ogej, (H) egej-. Tat. (Cr.) ogej-. Tat. Mg/; Bask, tigdj-, Kaz., Kklp., Nog. ogej-, Kir. ogej, ogdj-, Trkm. ovej {owej)-, Uz. ogej, dgdj-. Lob. iigej-, Alt. oj-, Khak. Sj-, Sor. oj. - Lit.: DTS 379; ESTJa I 495; KRPS 424, 437, 653; Ras. VEWT 369 a. The word oge 'step- (e.g.: stepfather), adoptive' has its equivalents (in some phonetic variants) in other Turkic languages. The ОТ sources registered the form dgdj.

26 tul (К-В) '1. vdovec, vdova; 2. razvedionnyj, razvedionnaja' (KBRS 651); tul (B. dial.: Balk.) 'vdova, vdovec' (Boz. 187); tul: tul-katin (t'ul. thd q'at'in; K) 'Wittwe' (Pr К 140); tul (B) 'Wittwe, Witwef (Pr В 262) < PT *tuh cf.: ОТ tut, Kum. tul, Az. dul; Tur., Gag. Jul; Kar. (Cr., H, T), Tat. (Cr.) tul; Tat. till; tol (Eg. 235); Cuv. tdlax; Bask, tid; tol (Eg. 235); Kaz. tid; dul (Eg. 235); Kklp., Nog., Kir. tul; Trkm. dul; Uz., Uig. tul; Lob. tol, tul; Alt. tul; Sor. tul; Yak. tulajax. - Lit.: Bask. NJa. 264; DTS 585; Eg. 235; ESTJa III 292; KRPS 546; OjHa. 39; Sul. Kkar. 103; Sc. SF 198. Tul 'widow, widower; divorced' registered in ОТ has also equivalents in other Turkic languages. Cuv. tdlax and Yak. tulajax denote 'orphan'. ul (K-B) 'syn' (KBRS 680); ul (K) 'Sohn' (Pr К 142); ul (B) 'Knabe, Kind, Sohn' (Pr В 264) < PT *ogul; cf.: ОТ ogul; Az. ogul; Khal. ogul; Tur. ogul; Gag. 6l; Kar. (Cr.) ogil, ogul, (H) ovul, uvul, (T) uvul; Tat. id; Cuv. ivdl; Bask. Ul; Kaz. id; Kklp. ul; Nog. mvd; Kir. м/; Trkm. ogul; Trukh. ogul; Uz. ogil; iigil (Rass. 213); Uig., Lob. ogul; Y. Uig. ogul, ogol, ogil; Alt. id; Khak. ogil, ol; Tuv. 61; Tof. dl; Yak. uol. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 44; Doerfer LSCh 36, 303; DTS 364; Eg. 341; ESTJa 1414; KRPS 423, 424, 572; Malov 149; Rass. 213; SKT 180; StachM GJV 77; Sul. Kkar. 83; Tenisev SJ 193. The word ul 'son; child' has equivalents in most of the other Turkic languages. In ОТ there was the form ogul. As far as the etymology of the word is concerned Egorov presents several conceptions suggested by different scholars, cf. Eg. 341. 1.2. Other terms referring to man baj (K-B) 'I. bogac; baj; 2. gospodin, xozjain; bogatyj, zazitocnyj' (KBRS I 12); baj (B. dial.: Ceg.) 'bogatyj, zazitocnyj, bogac' (Boz. 166); baj (K) 'reich, ein reicher Mann' (Pr К 90); baj (B) 'reich, wohlhabend' (Pr В 205) < PT *haj; ОТ baj; Kum., Az., Tur., Gag., Kar. (H, T), Tat., Tat. (Cr.) baj; Cu\. pujan; Bask., Kaz., Kklp, Nog., Kir. baj; Trkm. baj; Uz. boj; Uig., Lob. baj; Y. Uig. paj, pajar (Eg. 163); Alt. pa/', (dial.) baj; Khak. pa/'; Tuv. baj; Tof. baj; Sor. paj; Yak. baj. - Lit.: DTS 79; Eg. 163; ESTJa II 27; KRPS 98; Malov 90; Rass. 158; Riis. VEWT 56 a. The word baj denoting '1. rich, wealthy; rich person; 2. master, householder' was known in ОТ and also has equivalents in some modern Turkic languages. batir (K-B) I 'I. otvaznyj, xrabryj, muzestvennyj, besstrasnyj; 2. lixoj, bedovyj'; II (K) 'geroj' (KBRS 122); batir (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg., Khul.- Bez.) 'xrabryj, geroj, bogatyf' (Boz. 167); batir {bat^r; K) 'tapfer, wacker' (Pr К 92); batir {batir; B) 'tapfer, wacker; ein Held' (Pr В 207) < PT *bdtur (ESG); ОТ batur, bagatur; Kum. batir; Az., Tur. bahadir; Kar. (Cr., T) batir, (Cr., T. H) bagatir; Tat. batir, bahadir; Cuv. pattdr; Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog. batir; Kir.,

27 Trkm. hatir; Uz. bahudir; Uig. bahidur, balur. Lob. baluf, Y. Uig. palir; All. balir, Khak. matir, Tuv. madir. Yak. bafir. - Lit.: DTS 77, 89; Eg. 144; ESTJa II 82; KRPS 95, 107. The word balir meaning both 'courageous, brave" and 'hero" is widely known in Turkic languages (in some phonetic variants); also confirmed in ОТ sources. There are some conceptions concerning its origin, one relating this word to Mongolian, another one to Iranian languages, cf. ESTJa II 82-83. bij (K-B) '1. isl. bij, bej, knjaz; 2. ekspluatator, bogac; vlastelin; 3. pcelinaja matka' (KBRS 141); bij (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg., Kas., Khul. - Bez.) 'gospodin, knjaz' (Boz. 167); bij (K) 'Furst, Haupt' (Pr К 93); bij (B) 'Herr. Furst; Bienenkonigin' (Pr В 208) < PT *bdg (StachM GJV 61); *paj (Sc. SF 195); ОТ beg; Kum. bek; Az. bdj; Tur., Gag. bej-, Kar. (Cr.) bij, bej, beg, (H, T) bij; Tat. (Cr.) bej, beg; Tat. bi; Kaz. bi, bek; Kklp., Nog., Kir. bek, bij; Trkm. beg; Uz. bek, bij; Uig. bag, bek; Lob. bek; Sal. peg, рек, pex; Y. Uig. p'eg, peg; Alt. pij, bij, Khak. pig; Tuv. beg; Tof. beg; Sor. peg; Yak. bJ. - Lit.: DTS 91; ESTJa II 97; KRPS 1 15, 146, 148; Malov 92; Ras. 160; StachM GJV 61; Sul. Kkar. 54; Sc.SF 195;Tenisev SJ 195, 198. The word bij ' I. prince, ruler, master; 2. notable' has equivalents in other modern Turkic languages. ОТ sources register the form beg. gaw (K-B) 'vrag, neprijatel', nedrug" (KBRS 235); zau (B. dial.: Balk.) 'vrag' (Boz. 173); gau (jau; K) 'Feind' (Pr К 147); zau (B) 'id.' (Pr В 270) < PT *eafi {*eaji ?) (Sc. SF 196); ОТ jagi; Kum. jaw; Az. jagi; Kha\. jdgi; Tur. jagi; cf.: Kar. (H) javei; Tat., Ba^. jaw; Kaz., Kklp. zaw; Nog. jaw; Kir. go; Trkm. jow,jagi; Vz.jow; \J\g. jag, jegi; Lob., Y. \J\g.jagi; Alt. du;ju (Rass. 195); Khak. ca; Tuv. cd; Tof. cd; Sor. cd. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 42; Doerfer JSCh 165, 317; DTS 224; ESTJa IV 55; KRPS 215; Rass. 195; Malov 116; Sc.SF l96;Tenisev SJ 181. The word gaw 'enemy' was known in ОТ in the form jagi; at present it has its equivalents in several Turkic languages. In Y. Uig. the worddenotes 'struggle, battle' and in Kar. (H)yavc7 means 'soldier'. gigit (K-B) 1. 'smelyj, xrabryj; 2. 'geroj, molodec, dzigit, junosa' (KBRS 248); zigit (B. dial.: Khul.- Bez.), gigit (Baks.) 'udalec, dzigit, geroj' (Boz. 171); gigit ШП К) 'Jiingling' (Pr К 148) < PT *jigit (ESG); cf.: ОТ jigil; Kum. igil, jigit; Az. igit; Kh-d\. jigut; Tur. jigil; Gag. it; Kar. (Cr.) jigit, (H) igit,jigit, (T) igit, igitjigit; Tat. jigit; jeget (Eg. 77); Cuy. jeket; Eaik. jigit, jeget; Kaz., Kklp. zi^t\ nog. jigit; Kir. gigit; Trukh. jigit; Trkm., Vz. jigit; \J\g. jigit; zigit (Rass. 209); Lob. jigit; Sal. ixit,jihit; Y. \J\g. jigit, jigit; Alt. d'it; Khak. cit; Tof. nit; Sor. ciijdt. - Lit.: Doerfer 182, 318; DTS 260; Eg. 77; ESTJa IV 198; KRPS 193, 195, 244; Malov 120; Rass. 209; SKT 179; Tenisev 342, 356; YRh. 1258. Gigit ' 1. brave; 2. hero; 3. young man' was registered in ОТ in the form jigit. It has also its counterparts in other Turkic languages.

28 ije (К-В) 'xozjain, vladelec' (KBRS 295); ije (B. dial.: Ceg.) 'xozjain, gospodin, suprug' (Boz. 174); ije {ije-, K) 'Herr, Besitzer' (Pr К 107); ije {ije-, B) 'Herr, Wirt, Besitzer, Gatte' (Pr В 224) < PT *idi, iSd (Ras. VEWT 169 ab); cf.: ОТ ejci, egd, ijd, iSi, idi-, Kum.yeje; ij (Ras. VEWT 169b); Az.jijd-, Tur. eje, ije-, Kar. (Cr.) ije,je-. Tat. //«; Cuv. ije- . Bask, ya; Kaz. ije-, Kklp., Nog. ije-, Kir. ege, ё; Trkm. eje-, Uz. djd, egd-. Dig. egd, igd-. Lob. idi, ege-, Sal. egr, Y. Uig. ise-, Alt., Khak. ё; Tuv. e, ije-. Yak. ije, icci (?). - Lit.: Bask. JpU 42; DTS 165, 167, 203, 205; Eg. 67; ESTJa I 237; KRPS i 97, 268; Ras. VEWT 169 ab; Tenisev 321. The word ije 'master; owner; spouse' had equivalents in ОТ sources in several forms: ejd, egd, ijd, idi, idi. in ОТ the word also denoted 'God'. Modern Turkic languages register equivalents of this lexeme. In Cuv. the word means 'bad ghost, evil'. In Tuv. and Yak. ije denotes 'mother', which Egorov (Eg. 67) explains as the term from the matriarchy period. Later on, in the period of patriarchate the word gained a new meaning as 'the idol of fire, water; the owner; master'. kelin (K-B) '1. nevesta, novobracnaja; 2. nevestka, snoxa' (KBRS 319); kelin (B. dial.: Ceg.) 'nevesta, snoxa' (Boz. 174); kelin {к^еИщ К) 'Braut, Schwiegertochter' (Pr К 108); kelin (B) 'id.' (Pr В 227) < PT *kelin (ESG); cf: ОТ kelin-, Kum. gelin-, Az. gdlin-, kdlin (Eg. I 13); Khal. kalin, kdliin-, Tur., Gag. gelin-, Kar. (Cr., H, T) kelin-. Tat. (Cr.) kelin. Tat. (Ur.) telin-. Tat. Ши; kilen (Eg. 1 13); Cuv. kin, kilen- . Bask, kil'w, kilen (Eg. 113); Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. kelin-, Trkm. gelin-, Trukh. kelin-, Uz., Uig., Lob. kelin-, Sal. kejn, ken, kijn, kin-, Y. Uig. kelin-, Alt. kelin-, Khak. kil'm-, Tuv. kelin-, Sor. kdli. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 43; Doerfer LSCh 39, 296; DTS 296; Eg. 113; ESTJa III 16; Gab. 313; KRPS 302, 390; Malov 134; Podolsky 25; Ras. VEWT 250 a; SKT 179; Tenisev 377,380,382, 383. The word kelin 'bride' is registered in the oldest ОТ sources. At present it has its equivalents also in other Turkic languages. As far as its etymology is concerned Egorov (Eg. 113) claims that this lexeme comes from the verb kil- ~ kel- 'to come' and originally it denoted a woman who came from another tribe or house. kisi (K-B) 1. '1. celovek; muzcina; 2. kto-libo, kto-to, kto-nibut'; 2. 'cuzoj, postoronnij' (KBRS 350); kisi (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg., Khul-Bez.) 'muzcina, celovek' (Boz. 175); kiM {kisi-, K) 'Mensch, Mannsbild, ein anderer, die Leute' (Pr К 110); kisi (B) 'Mann, Mannsbild, ein Mann wie er sein soil, braver, tapferer Mann; Mensch, Leute, ein anderer, ein dritter' (Pr В 229) < PT *kisi (ESG); cf: ОТ kisi, kisi-, kis (MK); Kum. gisi-, Az., Khal., Tur., Gag. kisi-, Kar (Cr., T) kisi, (H) kisi-. Tat. (Ur.) Ш; Tat., Bask, kisi-, kese (Rass. 203); Kaz., Kklp., Nog. kisi-, Kir., Trkm., Trukh., Uz., Uig. kisv. Lob. kisi, kise, kse; Sal. kes, kes, kese, kic, kiei, kis, kisi-, Y.Uig. kisi, kisv, kisi, kise, kese, kse-, Alt. kizi-, Khak. kizi-, Tuv. kizi-, Tof kisi-, Sor. kizi-. Yak. kisi (OjHa. 30); kihi. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 43; Doerfer LSCh 39, 297; DTS 310; ESTJa V 78; KRPS 323, 326; Malov 136, 139;

29 OjHa. 30; Podolsky 13; Rass. 203; Sul. Kkar. 78; Tenisev 380, 382, 384; Tenisev SJ 190. The lexeme kisi ' I. man; 2. stranger' has counterparts in other Turkic languages. In ОТ two forms: kisi, kisi were registered. According to ESTJa V 79 the etymology of the word is vague. konsu (B), xonsu (K) 'sosed' (KBRS 710); konsu (B. dial.: Balk.) 'sosed' (Boz. 179); хоти (К) 'Nachbar' (Pr К 105); konsu (B) 'id.' (Pr В 239) < PT *konsu (ESG); cf ОТ kotisi, konasi, kosni; Kum. xonsu; Az. konsu; Khal. ko nsi; Tur. konsu, komsu; Kar. (Cr.) konsi, (H) konsu, (T) konsu; Tat. (Ur.) xonsu; Nog. ko^s'i; Kir. koijs'i; Uig. kosni; Khak. xongux; Yak. xon-oso. - Lit.: Bask. NJa. 252; Doerfer LSCh 170, 306; DTS 455; 460; Gab. 330; JUFD 211; KRPS 332, 333, 370; Podolsky 30; Ras. VEWT 279 b. The word konsu - xonsu 'neighbour' has its equivalents in some other Turkic languages. In ОТ the following forms were registered: konsi, konasi and with metathesis коШ. Rasanen (Ras. VEWT 279 b) suggests the derivational character of this word from the verbal basis ko-n- 'to settle; to sit down'. kul (K-B) 'rab, xolop, krepostnoj; krepostnoj krestjanin' (KBRS 421); Ы(В. dial.: Baks., Kask., Khul. - Bez.) 'rab, batrak, krepostnoj' (Boz. 179); kul {q'ul; K) 'Diener, der Leibeigene' (Pr К 120); kul {qui; B) 'Knecht, Leibeigener; niedriggesinnter Mensch' (Pr В 240) < PT *kul; cf: ОТ kul; Tur., Kar. (Cr., H, T) kul; Tat., Bask, kol; Kaz., Nog., Kir., Uz., Uig., Trkm., Lob., Alt. kul; Khak. xul; Tuv. kul; Tof hul; Yak. kulut. - Lit.: Bask. NJa. 253; DTS 464; KRPS 345, 374; Malov 130; Rass. 191; StachM GJV 50, 1 17; Sc. SF 194. The lexeme kul 'slave' is registered both in ОТ and in some modern Turkic languages, where in some of them it appears in phonetic variants. obur (K-B) I. 'koldunja, ved'ma; oboroteh; 2. ^per. umnyj, soobrazi- telnyj' (KBRS 487); obur (B. dial.: Balk., Ceg.) 'koldun' (Boz. 181); obur {obur; K) 'Hexe' (Pr К 125); obur {obur; B) 'Zauberer' (Pr В 246) < PT *dbur (ESG); cf: Kum. obur; Tur. obur; Kar. (Cr.) obur, obir, (H, T) obur; Tat. ubir; Cuv. vupar, dial, vapar; Bask, ubir; Kaz., Nog. obir; Kir. obur. - Lit.: Eg. 57; KRPS 423; Ras. VEWT 363 a; YRh. 896. The word obur in K-B has two meanings I. 'witch, werewolf; 2. fig. 'clever'. It has its equivalents in a few other Turkic languages. However, in some of them there are two other, various meanings, cf: Kar. (Cr.) obur, obir 'greedy', (H, T) obur 'witch'; Tur. obur 'greedy, gluttonous' (YRh.), arch, obur 'bad ghost'. Rasanen (Ras. VEWT 363 a) etymologizes the word from dp- 'to lap'; Egorov (Eg. 57) gives the etymon up ~ op-'io swallow'. oksuz (K-B) 'sirota; besprizornik' (KBRS 275); obuz (B. dial.: Ceg.) 'sirota' (Boz. 182); oskuz {osl^iiz; K) 'Waise' (Pr К 127); oxsiiz {dxsuz; B) 'id.' (Pr В 248) < PT *6gsiiz (ESG); cf: ОТ ogsiiz; Kum., Tur. obiiz; Gag. sus; Kar.

30 (Cr.) dksiz, obiiz, (H) ehiiz, (T) dkmt. Tat. (Cr.) oLsiiz-, Tat. (Ur.) oksiiz-. Tat. iiksiz-, Uz. oksiz", Alt. oskiis, iisktis', Khak. okls', Tuv. dskus; Sor. iibiis, oksiis, okkiis. - Lit.: DTS 381; ESTJa I 521; KRPS 438, 657; Podolsky 16; Ras. VEWT 368 b; Sul. Kkar. 85. The word oksiiz, also with metathesis oskiiz 'orphan' has its equivalents in other Turkic languages. In ОТ there was the form: dgsiiz. The structure shows the derivational character: ok + -siiz. uru (K-B) 'vor' (KBRS 685) < PT *ogur (? ~ *ogir; StachM GJV 77); cf.: ОТ ogri; Kum. oru, uru; Az. ogrw, Tur. ugru; Kar. (Cr.) ogri, (H) ogri, uru, (T) uru; Tat. (Cr.) ogri; Tat. ugri; Cuv. vara; Bask, bur, ogro; Kaz. iiri; Kklp., Nog. uri; Kir. йги; Trkm. ogri; Uz. ogri; ugri (Eg. 49); Uig. ogri, ogur; Lob. ogji; Sal. ogri, ugru; Y. Uig. ogur; Alt. (V) ogur, ogru, ogra, ur; Khak. ogir; Tuv. or; Tof. ori; Sor. ogru; Yak. uor. - Lit.: DTS 363; Eg. 49; ESTJa 1412; Gab. 320; KRPS 423, 424, 581; Malov 149; Rass. 213; Ras. VEWT 357 b; StachM GJV 77; Tenisev 423, 531; Tenisev SJ 193; YRh. 1196 . The word uru 'thief has its equivalents in numerous modern Turkic languages. In ОТ sources the form ogri was registered. 1.3. Parts of the body and body fluids The group comprises not only parts of the body but also biological substances like blood, sweat, excrements. ajak (K-B) ' 1. noga, stopa, stupnja, lapa, lapka; 2. nozka, podporka, opora; 3. konec, niz'. (KBRS 107); ajak (B. dial. Baks., Ceg.) 'noga, stupnja' (Boz. 164); ajak {ajaq; K) 'Fuss' (Pr К 85); ajak, ajax, ajag {ajaq, ajdx, ajay; B) 'Fuss, Ende' (Pr В 198). < PT *а6ак; cf.: ОТ ajak, adak,jadak; Kum. ajak; Az. ajag; Tur. ajak; Gag. ajak; Kar. (H) ajak, (Cr.) ajak (T) ajax; Tat. (Cr.) ajak, (Ur.) ajax. Tat. ajak; Cuv. ura; Bask, azak; Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir., Trkm. ajak; Uz. ojok, (dial.): ojog; Uig. ajak, dial: ajag; Lob. ajak; Sal. ajax, ajex; Y. Uig. azax, azak; Alt., Khak. azax, azak; Tuv. adak; Tof. adak; Yak. atax. - Lit.: DTS 8, 27; Eg. 275; ESTJa I 103; Gab. 292; KRPS 51, 52; Malov 82; Podolsky 3; Rass. 151; Ras. VEWT 5a; Tenisev SJ 171, 174; Tenisev 284, 285. Ajak 'foot, leg' is common in all modern Turkic languages. It was also known in Old Turkic in the forms adak, ajak,jadak (cf. DTS 8, 27, Gab. 292). ajaz (K-B) 'ladon' (KBRS 106) < PT *ajaz < *aja (ESG); cf.: ОТ aja; Tur. aja; Khal. aja; Tat. (Cr.) aja; Bask., Kaz., Nog. aja; Trkm. aja; Uz. dial. aja, aja; Y. Uig. haja; Khak. aja; Tuv. adis; Tof. ades; Yak. itis. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh. 54, 278; DTS 25; ESTJa I 100; Gab. 296; Rass. 151; Tenisev SJ 219. Although being old (confirmed in DTS) the word ajaz is not common in modern Turkic languages. It has a meaning 'palm of the hand'. Only in

31 Karachay-Balkar does it appear in the form ajaz", in other languages the most common form is aja, however with some exceptions (cf. above). arka (K-B) '1. spina; 2. zad' (KBRS 74); arka (B. dial.: Khul. -Bez.) 'spina' (Boz. 165); arka (arqci; B) 'Rucken' (Pr В 202) < PT *arka; cf.: ОТ arka- Kum. arka-, Az. arxa-, Tur., Gag., Kar. (H, T), Kar. (Cr.), Tat., Tat. (Cr.) arka-, in Cuv. only in form urxalax 'ceressedefnik' (CRS 516); Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir., Trkm. arka-, Uz. orka-, Uig. a(r)ka-. Lob. ajka, aka-, Sal. arga, arxa-, Y. Uig., Alt. arka-, Khak. arga-. Yak. ar)>a, aryan. - Lit.: CRS 516; DTS 53; ESTJa I 174; KRPS 73; Malov 81, 83; OjHa. 9; Ras. VEWT 26 a; StachM GJV 46; Tenisev 292, 293. The word with the meaning 'back part, the back' is confirmed both in ОТ and in modern Turkic languages. asik (K-B) I '1. alcik, babka; 2. scikolotka, lodyzka, golenostopnyj sustav'. II 'kostocka (np. na sciotax)' (KBRS 105); asik (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg., Khul.-Bez.) 'lodyzka, alcik, sustav' (Boz. 166); asik (asiq-, K) 'Knochelbein' (Pr К 89); asik, asix, asig (asiq, asix, asiy, B) 'Knochel, Knochelbein, Gelenk' (Pr В 203) < PT *asik (ESG); cf.: ОТ asut, Az. asig-, Tur., Kar. (Cr.), Tat., Tat. (Cr.), Bask, asit, Kaz., Kklp., Nog. asit, Kir. aMt, Trkm. asit, Uz. osit, Uig. asuk, osuk- . Lob. asuk, asik-, Alt. аМ.- Lit.: DTS 64; ESTJa 1216; KRPS 93; Malov 88, 89; Ras. VEWT 30 b. The word denoting 'knucklebones' has its equivalents in ОТ and some modern Turkic languages. awuz (K-B) '1. rot; 2. ust'e, ruslo; 3. uscel'e; dolina; 4. gorlo, uste, vyxodnoje otverstie; 5. dulo, zerlo; kalibr; 6. jazyk. rec; 7. lezvie; 8. napev, melodija' (KBRS 94); auz (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg., Khul. -Bez.) 'rot, uscel'e' (Boz. 165); a'uz (a'iiz ;K) 'Mund' (Pr К 89); a'uz {a'uz-, B) 'Mund, Schneide eines Messers oder Schwertes, Schlucht, Kluft, Hohlweg' (Pr В 204) < PT *aguz-, cf.: ОТ agaz (DTS 17), agiz, ag(i)z (Gab. 293); Kum. awuz-, Az. agiz', Khal. aguz-, Tur. agiz-. Gag. az-, Kar. (Cr., H, T) avuz, (Cr.) agiz-. Tat. «wiz; Tat.(Ur.) avuz, Tat.(Cr.) agiz-, Cuv. savar. Bask, awiz; Kaz., Kklp., Nog. awiz', Kir. oz; Trkm., Trukh. agiz-, Uz. ogiz-, Uig. egiz- . Lob. agiz, azig; Sal. agas, agiz, agiz, axis-, Y. Uig. axis, gas (Tenisev SJ 174); ayis-, Alt. as, as-, Khak., Tuv. as-, Tof. 3s-, Sor. as -. Yak. uos. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 47, 277; DTS 17; Eg. 204; ESTJa 181; Gab. 293; KRPS 42, 44; Malov 80, 81; Podolsky 2; Rass. 158; SKT 177; StachM GJV 21; Sul. Kkar. 48, 52; Tenisev 281, 282, 283; Tenisev SJ 174. The word with the meaning 'mouth' has equivalents in other Turkic languages. It is also known with the metaphorical sense 'speech, language'. In ОТ there were the forms agaz, agiz, ag(i)z. azaw (K-B) 'klyk, biven' (KBRS 27); azau (azdw, K) 'Eckzahn' (Pr К 90) < PT *azig-, cf.: ОТ azig, azih-, Az., Tur. azr, Kar. (Cr., H, T) azav- . Tat. (Cr.)

32 azuv. Tat. azaw, Cuv. asav. Bask, azaw, Kaz. ахщ Kklp. azmv, Kir. MZW; Trkm. az'v, Uz. ozik. Lob. azih, Y. Dig. az'ig\ Alt. azu\ Khak., Tuv. az'ig-, Tof. asag, aseg; Yak. ahf~ ihl - Lit.: DTS 72; Eg. 33; ESTJa I 96; Gab. 297; KRPS 47; Malov 81; Ras. VEWT 33 a; StachM GJV 18; Tenisev SJ 215. The word denoting 'canine tooth, fang' is common in Turkic languages, where it appears in various equivalents, in ОТ the forms az'ig, azih were registered. balak (K-B) 'svod stopy' (KBRS I 15); halak (K) 'Fussohle (eigentlich die Sohlenwolbung' (Pr К 91); halak {halaq\ B) 'der vordere Teil des Fusses mit den Zehen' (Pr В 205) < PT *balak (ESC); сГ: Kum. halak; Az. balak; Tur. (only dial.) balak, balag, balax, baldirak; Kar. (Cr.) balak; Tat., Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog. balak; Kir. bagalak, bagelek; Trkm. balak. - Lit.: ESTJa 11 51; KRPS 100; Ras. VEWT 59 b. This word is not confirmed in ОТ sources. It has equivalents only in some of the Turkic languages (Oghuz and Kipchak groups). As far as the meaning is concerned in K-B it has the meaning 'foot; arch of the foot; the front part of the foot', whereas in the above presented languages this word means: 'trouser leg'; 'armit; ankle' also 'loop'. baltir (K-B) 'ikra' (KBRS 116); baltir (B. dial.: Balk., Ceg.) 'ikra, golen' (Boz. 166); baltir {baltir; B) 'Wade, Unterschenkel' (Pr В 206) < PT *baltur; ОТ baltir; Az., Tur. baldir; Kar. (Cr., H, T), Tat., Bask., Kaz., Nog., Kir. baltir; Trkm. baldir; Uz. boldir; Khak. paltir; Tuv. baldir; Tof. baldir; Yak. ballir. - Lit.: Bask. NJa. 237; DTS 81; KRPS 101; Rass. 158; Ras. VEWT 61 a. The word baltir denoting 'shin-bone' is rather uncommon in modern Turkic languages; it is registered in ОТ sources. barmak (K-B) 'palec' (KBRS 118); barmak (B. dial.: Ceg.) 'palec' (Boz. 166); barmak {barmdq; K) 'Finger' (Pr К 91); barmak, barmax, barmag {barmaq, barmax, barmdy; B) 'Finger' (Pr В 206) < PT ^barmak; cf.: Kum., Az. barmak; Khal. barma k; Tur., Gag. parmak; Kar. (Cr.) parmak, (H) barmak, (T) barmax; Tat., Tat. (Cr.) barmak; Cuv. piirne; Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog. Kir., Trkm. barmak; Uz. barmak; Uig. ba(r)mak; Lob. barmak, majmak; S'dX. permax, pirmax, purmax; Y. Uig. pasirmik; Alt. parmak. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 54, 278; Eg. 172; ESTJa II 66; KRPS 103,446; Malov 91, 141; Tenisev 445, 456, 458. Barmak 'finger' has equivalents in other modern Turkic languages, however it was not confirmed in ОТ sources. bas (K-B) 'I. golova; 2. soznanie, um; 3. sposobnost'; 4. verxuska, versi'na; greben; 5. krysa; 6. kryska; pokrytie; 7. golova; dusa; celovek; 8. golovka, gorlysko, gorlovina, sejka; 9. zaglavie, glaza; 10. nacalo; 11, verxovie; 12. izgolovie; 13. kolos; botva; kocan' (KBRS 123); bas (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg., Kas., Khul. -Bez.) 'golova, krysa, nacalo, konec, verx' (Boz. 167); bas (K)

33 'Kopf, Gipfel, Wipfel, Spitze, Ahre' (Pr К 91); has (B) 'Kopf, Haupt; Ahre; Dach; das Obere; Anfang; Ende' (Pr В 206). < PT *has ~ *has-, ОТ has-, Kum.. Az. bay, Khal. ha s', Tur., Gag. bay, Kar. (Cr., T) has, (H) has'. Tat., Tal. (Cr., Ur.) bay, Cuv. puy. Bask, bay, Kaz., Kklp., Nog. has-, Kir. hay, Trkm. hay, Uz. boy, Uig. bay. Lob. bay, Sal. has, has, pas, pas, vas, pay, Y. \J\%. pas, p'ay, Alt. bas, pay, Khak. pas', Tuv. bay, Tof. bay. Yak. has. - Lit.: Doerler LSCh 45, I 74, 278; DTS 86; Eg. 168; ESTJa II 85; KRPS 104, 109; Malov 92; OjHa. 8; Podolsky 4; Rass. 159; StachM GJV 46; Sul. Kkar. 54; Tenisev 301, 438, 439, 542;Tenisev SJ 195. The word has is widely known both in ОТ and modern Turkic languages, where in some of them there are phonetic variants of the word. Semantically it shows a wide scale. It may denote ' 1. head; 2. top, surface; 3. beginning; 4. mind; 5. soul, person; 6. end'. bawur (K-B) 'I. peceh; 2. grud'; zivot' (KBRS 122); haur (B. dial.: Baks.) 'peceh' (Boz. 167); bawur, ba'ur (bawur, ba'ur; K) 'Leber' (Pr К 92); ba'ur (ba'ur; B) 'id' (Pr В 207) < PT *bagir; cf: ОТ bagir; Az. bagir; Khal. bagir-gara; Tur. hagi'r; Kar. (Cr., H, T) bawur, bagir (T), hagir (Cr.); Tat. (Cr.) bagir. Tat. bciglr, bawir; Cuv. pever; Bask, bagir, hawi'r; Kaz., Kklp., Nog. baw'ir, Kir. bar, Trkm., Trukh. hagir, Uz. bagir, Uig. beglr. Lob. hagir, hagij ~ bagij-, 'ba.\.pagir, Y. pegir ~pagir, Alt. Ьйг,рйг; Khak./JO;-; TUV., Tof. bar: SOT. par; Yak. biar. - Lit.: Doerler LSCh 278; DTS 78; Eg. 155; ESTJa II 17; KRPS 94, 96; Malov 90; Rass. 160; SKT 177; StachM GJV 21; Tenisev 434. Bawur denoting '1. liver; 2. heart; 3. chest; 4. stomach' has equivalents both in modern Turkic languages and in ОТ. bel (K-B) 'pojasnica, talja, pojas' (KBRS 131); bel{Q. dial.: Balk., Ceg., Khul.- Bez.) 'talija, pojas, pojasnica' (Boz. 167); hd (K) 'die Taille' (Pr К 92); bel (B) 'die Taille, die Mitte des Korpers' (Pr В 207) < PT *M/; cf.: ОТ beh Kum., Az. hel; Khal. bel; Tur., Gag. hel; Kar. (T) bel'hau, beli-bau, (Cr., H) bel, (Cr.) belhau, (H) helibau; Tat. bil; Tat. (Cr.) hel, Cuv. pilet. Bask, hil, Kaz.. Kklp., Nog., Kir. hel; Trkm. hil; Uz. hel; Uig. bel, bcil; Lob. hel, vel; Sal. hel, hil, pil,pil; Y. Uig. pel; Alt. pel; Khak. pil; Tuv. hel; Yak. hil. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 52, 279; DTS 93; Eg. 160; ESTJa II 135; KRPS I 12, 149; Malov 93; OjHa. 28; StachM GJV 72; Tenisev 301, 302, 447; Tenisev SJ 196. Bel 'belt; waist' confirmed in other Turkic languages (in some of them in phonetic variants) was also registered in ОТ. bet (K-B) '1. lico; 2. sovest'; 3. licevaja storona; 4. stranica; polosa' (KBRS 136); bet (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg.) 'lico, cvet lica, kraska, licevaja storona, poverxnost" (Boz. 167); bet (K) 'Gesicht, Gegend, Farbe' (Pr К 92); bet (B) 'Gesicht, Gesichtsfarbe, Farbe' (Pr В 208) < PT *bet; cf.: ОТ bit; Kum. bet; Tur. bet heniz; Kar. (Cr.) hat; Tat. bit. Tat. (Cr., Ur.) bet; Cuv. pit; Bask, hit;

34 Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Trukh.. Uz. bef, Uig. bat. bet; Alt. bel,pel; Tuv. beli; Tof. bel. - Lit.:DTS 103; Eg. l62;ESTJall I21;KRPS 153; Podolsky 5; SKT 178. The word bel meaning 'face, physiognomy' is known in ОТ and also at present in other languages. bcz (K-B) '(limfaticeskaja) zeleza' (KBRS 130); bez (K) 'Druse' (Pr К 92); bez (B) 'id.' (Pr В 208) < PT *bez (ESG); ОТ bez- Kum., Tur. bez; Tat. biz; Cuv. par; Bask, biz; Kaz., Kklp., Kir. bez; Trkm. mdz; Uz. bez; Uig. bdz; Lob. bez; Tuv. bes; Tof. 5es. - Lit.: DTS 97; Eg. 142; Malov 92; Rass. 161. Bez 'gland' has equivalents in some other Turkic languages. It was confirmed in ОТ. bilck (K-B) 'I. ruka; 2. per. opora, nadezda; podderzka' (KBRS 142); bilek (B. dial.: Baks.) 'ruka, kist' ruki' (Boz. 167); bilek (bilek; K) 'Arm' (Pr К 93); bilek, bilex, bileg {bilek, bilex, bileg; B) 'der Arm' (Pr В 208) < PT *hilak; cf: ОТ bildk; Kum. bilek; Az. bildk; Khal. bildkcd; Tur., Gag. bilek; Kar. (Cr.) bilek, bil'ak, (H) bildk, (T) bil'ak; Tat. bildk; Bask, bildk; Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir.. Trkm. bilek; Uz. bilak, bildk; Uig. bildk; Lob. bilek, bildk, belek, belik,pildk; Alt. belek; Khak. pllek; Tuv. bilek; Tof bilek; Sor. pilek; Yak. bilihdx. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 148, 280; DTS 99; ESTJa II 145; KRPS 117, 119; Malov 93, 94, 156; StachM GJV 73. Bilek 'wrist' is probably a derivative, both whose etymology and the formative basis are still the question of discussion (cf. ESTJa II 146). It is known both in Old Turkic and in modern Turkic languages, where in some of them it appears in some phonetic variants. bogak (K-B) 'vtoroj podborodok' (KBRS 154); bogak (boydq; K) 'die, schlaffe, beim Gehen baumelnde Haut am Halse der Rinder' (Pr К 94); bogak, bogax, bogag {boydq, hoydx, boydy; B) 'die Kehle, der Schlund; Adamsapfel' (Pr В 209) < PT *bokak ~ *bukak; cf: ОТ bukak, bukuk, boguk; Kum. bugak; Az. boxak; Tur. bogak; Bask, biigak; Kaz., Kklp. bugak; Kir. bugak, bogok; Uz. bukok; ищ. pokak, poxdk; Lob. pokok; Alt. bogok; К.\\гк. pogo; Sor. mogak; Yak. mogox. - Lit.: DTS 125, 109; ESTJa 11 202. Although bogak '1. throat, pharynx; 2. pharyngitis; 3. Adam's apple' has equivalents in ОТ it is not common at present. Only several Turkic languages have its equivalents. The structure of the word shows its derivational character. There are some theories concerning its relationship with the verb hog- 'to choke' or with the noun buk 'swelling', cf ESTJa II 202-203. bojun (K-B) '1. seja; gorlo; 2. per. otvetstvennost" (KBRS 163); bojim, bojnun (B. dial.: Balk., Khul. -Bez.) 'seja, bereg' (Boz. 168); bojun (bojun; K) 'Hals' (Pr К 94); bojun (bojun; B) 'id.' (Pr В 210) < PT *botj (Ras. VEWT 80 a); *pdj (Sc. SF 196); cf.: ОТ bojun; Kum., Az. bojun; Khal. bojun; Tur., Gag., Kar., Tat. (Cr., Ur.) bojun; Tat. mujln; Cuv. mdj; Bask, muj'in; Kaz., Kklp., Nog. rnojin;

35 Kir. mojun- Trkm. hojun; Trukh. hofin- Uz. bojin-, Uig. hujim, hojan- Lob. mojun. moju, main, miijiin, hojun, hojitr, Y. Uig. main; Ait., Kliak. торг, Tuv. mojiar, Tof. mojni 'his neck'; Sor. moin, mojun-. Yak. mojun, moj, moj. - Lit.: Doerler LSCh 49, 281; DTS 1 10; Eg. 129; ESTJa II 180; Gab. 304; KRPS 127; Malov 94; OjHa. 35; Podoisky 6; Rass. 207; Ras. VEWT 80 a; SKT 177; Tenisev SJ 192. Bojun 'neck' has equivalents in other modern Turkic languages; the word was registered in ОТ. bok (K-B) ' 1. defmo, kal, pomiot; 2. sor; 3. navoz; 4. per. dermo, drjan" (KBRS 155); hok (B. dial.: Ceg., Khul. - Bez.) 'necistoty, navoz, grjaz, ekskre- menty, otbrosy organizma' (Boz. 168); bok (K) 'Schmutz, Dunger' (Pr К 94); bok, box, bog {boq, box, boy, B) 'id.' (Pr В 210) < PT cf.: ОТ bok, Tur.. Gag. bok-, Kar. (Cr., H) bok, (T) box-. Tat. (Cr.) hot. Tat. (Ur.) box-, Cuv. pax- . Bask, bok-, Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir., Trkm., Trukh. bot, Uz. bug, bot, Uig. рок, pox-, Sal. pog, pox, pux-, Alt. рок, bot, Khak. pox-, Tuv. bot, Sor. рок. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 45; DTS 112; Eg. 151; ESTJa И 183; Podoisky 5; SKT 177; Sc. SF 196; Tenisev 451,454,457. Bok meaning 'excrement, dung' was known in ОТ. At present there are its equivalents in other Turkic languages. burun (K-B) Ч. nos; 2. kliuv; 3. perednaja (nosovaja) cast'; nos, nosok' (KBRS 169); burun (B. dial.: Baks., Ceg.) 'nos' (Boz. 168); burun (burihr, K) 'Nase, Schnabel' (Pr К 96); burun (burun-, B) 'Nase, Schnabel, Schnauze' (Pr В 212) < PT *burun (ESG); cf.: ОТ burun-, Kum., Az. burun-, Khal. bu run-, Tur. burun-. Gag. burnu-, Kar. (Cr., T) burun, (H) borun, burun-. Tat. (Cr., Ur.) burwr. Tat. Ьйгт-, Bask. Ьйгйп-, тйгйп-, Kaz., Kklp. murin-. Nog. burin-, Kir. murwr, Trkm. burwr, Uz., Uig. Ьигищ Lob. mujun, mujnw, Sal. purne, purnu, purnv, Khak. purun-, Sor. тигищ Yak. murun. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 41; DTS 126; Doerfer LSCh 46, 282; ESTJa II 269; KRPS 131, 141; Malov 145; OjHa. 39; Podoisky 6; Rass. 166; Tenisev 456,458. The word burun 'nose' has equivalents with this meaning in many other Turkic languages; registered in ОТ. but (K-B) '1. noga; 2. bedro, oguzok (cast' tusi)' (KBRS 171); but (B. dial.: Baks., Ceg., Khul. - Bez.) 'noga' (Boz. 169); but (K) 'Bein' (Pr К 96); but (B) 'Bein, Schenkel' (Pr В 212) < PT *biit-, *рШ (Sc. SF 196); cf.: ОТ but; Kum. but-, Az. bud-, Khal. biif, Tur., Gag., Kar. (Cr., H, T), Tat. (Cr.) but- . Tat. biif, Cuv. рёАё-, Bask., Kaz. biit-, Kk\p.put-, Nog., Kir. but-, Trkm. but-, Uz. but-, Uig. but, put-. Lob. but, put-, Y. Uig. put, vut-, Alt. but, puf, Khak. puf, Tuv. buf, Tof. buf, Sor. put-. Yak. but. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 45; Doerfer LSCh 56, 282; DTS 129; Eg. 158; ESTJa И 280; KRPS 142; Malov 96, 157; OjHa. 40; Rass. 166; Sul. Kkar. 57; Sc. SF 196; Tenisev SJ 197,219. The word but 'leg; hip; thigh' has counterparts in other Turkic languages with the same meaning as in K-B. It was registered by MK.

36 burek (К-В) 'pocka' (KBRS 176); hujrek {hiirek) (B. dial.: Balk., Ceg.) 'pocka' (Boz. 169); borek (K) ' I. Leber; 2. eine Art Kuchen, dem loqum ahnlich' (Pr К 95); hujrek, hiijurek, bujrex, biijreg {biijrek, biijiirek, biijrex, bujreg', B) •Niere' (Pr В 212). < PT *bdgurek ~ *bdgrek; cf.: ОТ bogur (MK); Kum. bujrek; Az. bdjiir, bdjrdk; Khal. bogdrcut, Tur. bobrek, bogrek; Gag. bilr, buret, Kar. (Cr.) bogrdk, (H) biwrdk, (T) biiwrak, buvrdk, buvrat. Tat. biijlrdk, bitjir. Tat. (Cr.) bobrek', Cuv. pure'. Bask, biijiir, Kaz. bujlr, biijrek-, Kkip. biijir, biijrek- . Nog. bujrek-, Kir. bdjrdk-, Trkm. bowrek, bowiir, Uz. bujrat, Uig. bordt, Sal. pogret. All. boruk-, Khak. purek, pugiiret, Tuv. biiret, Tof. borek; Sor. piirek. pugret. Yak. biior. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 51, 281; DTS I 16; Eg. 171; ESTJa 11 205, 207; KRPS 114, 134, 144, 153; Rass. 73; StachM GJV 86; Tenisev 451; YRh. 195. Biirek ~ bujrek 'kidney' has counterparts in other Turkic languages, in MK it was registered in the form bogiir. cac (K-B) 'I. volosy; kosa; 2. per. trava, rastitel'nyj pokrov' (KBRS 729); cac (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg.) 'volos, volosy' (Boz. 190); cac {c'ac-, K) 'Haare' (Pr К 96); cac, cas (B) 'id.' (Pr В 213) < PT *sac-, cf.: ОТ sac-, Kum. cm; Az. sac-, Khal. sa c -, Tur. sac, Kar. (Cr.) sac, sec-, cac, (H) cac, (T) cac-. Tat. (Ur.) sac- . Tat. cat"; Cuv. siis- . Bask, sds-, Kklp., Nog. sas', Kir. cac"; Trkm., Trukh. лас; Uz. SOC -, Uig. sac, cac- . Lob. sac, sdc, sds, cac, ccc; Sal. sac, sac, saz, s^is, s^'ic-, Y. Uig. saz, saz-, Alt. cac; Khak. sas; Tuv. cas; Tof ces; Yak. as . - Lit.: Bask. JpU 47; Doerfer 49, 307; DTS 479; Eg. 224; KRPS 470, 500, 613, 625; Malov 160, 189, 194; OjHa. 8; Podolsky 19; Rass. 196; SKT 181; Sc. SF 196; Tenisev 470, 476, 493; Tenisev SJ 206. The word cac 'hair' is registered in the form .vac in ОТ and is widely known in modern Turkic languages in some phonetic variants. erin (K-B) 'guba' (KBRS 770); erin (B. dial.: Baks.) 'id.' (Boz. 170); erin (K) 'Lippe' (Pr К 101); erin (B) 'id.' (Pr В 219) < PT *erin (ESC); cf: ОТ erin; Kum. erin; Khal. d riin; Tur. (dial.) erin; Kar. (Cr., H) erin, (T) erin, erin; Tat. inn; Bask, inn; Kaz. erin; Kklp., Nog., Kir., Trkm. erin; Uz. irin; Alt. erin; Khak. irin; Tuv. erin. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 47, 287; DTS 178; ESTJa 1 292; KRPS 665, 666; Sul. Kkar. 63 . The substantive erin 'lip' was registered in ОТ and has counterparts in some modern Turkic languages. gajak (K-B)' I. celjust'; 2. sceka' (KBRS 239), gijak (B) 'id.' (ibid. 269); gajak (jajdq; K) 'Wange' (Pr К 145) < PT *janak; cf: ОТ jaijak; ¥.\xm. jajak; Az.janak; Tur., Gag.janak; Kar. (Cr.) janak, jagak, (T) janax; Tat. {{iT.) janax; Tal.jaijak; Сиу. janax (< Tat.); Bask, ja^a^:; Kaz., Kklp. zak; Kir. gak; Trkm. jaijak; Uz. gag,jonok; Vig.ja^ak, gag; Sal. ja^ax; Y. Wig. jinak, jinak, gigak; Alt. dak; Khak. ndx; Tuv. cak; Tof ndk; Sor. nak; Yak. s'iijax. - Lit.: DTS 233;

37 Eg. 353; ESTJa IV 123; KRPS 215, 225; OjHa. 13; Podolsky 31; Rass. 73; StachM GJV 54. The word gajak 'I. jaw; 2. cheek' was known in ОТ in the form jaijak. At present it has its counterparts in numerous Turkic languages, however in some cases (Tat., Bask., Alt., Kir., Khak.) with the meaning 'side; edge'. gamiz (K-B) 'i. pax; 2. narucnyje polovyje organy zensciny' (KBRS 222); zammiz {zammiz; B) 'die Weichen' (Pr В 268) < PT *jamiz (ESG); cf.: ОТ jam(u)zJomuz (Gab. 3,5\y,jamiz,jamuz (DTS 231, 272); AT., janbiz- . Tat. dial.: jamuz, jamis, jambuz, janbuz, jumb'iz, gamiz; Nog. jamiz', Trkm. jamiz; Yak. simis. - DTS 231, 272; Gab. 351; ESTJa IV I 10; Ras. VEWT i 84 b. The word gamiz 'groin' is registered in ОТ in the ioxm'i\ jamuz, jamiz ~ jomuz. At present it has its equivalents in only several Turkic languages, in most of the languages confirming the existance of this word the meaning is the same as in K-B, however in some languages the meaning is different, e.g .: Az. janhiz 'a sort of beef; Tat. d\a.\. janbiz 'part of a hip'. The etymology of this word is unclear, there are several conceptions concerning this matter, cf. ESTJa IV 11 I. gawrun (K-B) 'lopatka, lopatocnaja kost" (KBRS 236); zaurun (B. dial.: Kas., Ceg.) 'plecnaja lopatka' (Boz. 171); zaurun (Balk., Ceg.) 'id.' (ibid. 173); ga'urun (ja'urim; K) 'Schulterblatter' (Pr К 147); za'urun {za'urm; B) 'Schulter- blatt' (Pr В 271) < PT *jarin (ESG); cf.: ОТ jarin-, Kum.jawrun; Tur. jagir, Kar. (Cr.) jagirin, jayirin, (H) javrun, (T) javrun, juvrun\ Ш. jawirin; Cuv. surdm; Bask, javrin; Kaz. zawrin', Kklp. zawirin\ Nog. jawirin-, Kir. gorun-, Trkm. jagirnv, \Jz. jagrin; \J\g. jarin', Sa\. jagri; Y. \J\g. jarin- A\t. jarin, darin-, Khak. carin-, Tuv. carin-, Sor. carin\ Yak. sarin. - Lit.: DTS 241; Eg. 220; ESTJa IV 65; KRPS 215, 216, 229,252. The word gaurun denoting in K-B 'shoulder-blade' was known in ОТ in the form jarin. At present it has its equivalents in some Turkic languages, sometimes with a wider semantic scale, cf.: Kar. {Cv.) jagirin 'shoulder-blade; Ьаск',>/;/гш 'shoulder'; lur.jagir 'withers'. gik (K-B) 'I. anat. sustav; falanga; 2. bot. koleno; 3. per. podrobnosti, tonkosti, detali' (KBRS 248); gik {jit, K) 'Fingerglied' (Pr К 148); zik, zix, zig (B)'id.' (PrВ272)<PT*juj~*jug< *в1 (Sc. SF 197); cf.: 01 jv. Кит. jit, Az. jiv, Tur.jiv-, Tat. gUj-, zdj (Eg. 209); Cuv. seve-. Bask.уму,убу; Kaz., Kklp. zih, Kir. git, Uz. cot Alt. d'it, Khak. at, Tuv. tig- . Yak. sit - Lit.: DTS 260; Eg. 209; ESTJa IV 197; Sc. SF 197; YRh. 1258. The word gik in K-B denotes 'I. joint, wrist; 2. bot. node'. In ОТ the word was confirmed in the form ji with the meaning 'stitch'. At present the word has its equivalents in some other Turkic languages mostly with the meaning 'stitch; seam'.

38 gilik (К-В) '1. kostnyj mozg; 2. mosol, mozgovaja kost" (KBRS 247); zilik{B. dial.: Ceg.) 'spinnoj mozg' (Boz. l71);g/7/A: (Baks.) 'mozg, kostnyj mozg' (ibid. 172); gilik IjiUk- K) 'Mark' (Pr К 148); zilik, zilix, zilig (B) 'Mark, Knochenmark' (Pr В 272) < PT *(j)ilik (ESG) ; cf.: ОТ ilikjUig- Кит. jilik; Az. Hit, Khsi\. jilk, gilk, nilk, ml, Tur. Hit, Kar. (H, T) Hit, Tat. gilik, jillt, Bask.yTM; Kklp. zilik; 'Nog. jilik; Kir. gilik; Trkm. jiiluk,jilik; Uz. ilik; jilik, zilik; Sal. ilek; Y. Uig. il'ig; Alt. d'ilik, duluk; Khak. сНщ; Tuv. cilig, ciduk; Sor. siiliiij; Yak. silit sili, sail. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 289, 302, 318; DTS 208, 261; ESTJa IV 265; KRPS 198; Ras. VEWT 203 a; Tenisev 336; Tenisev SJ 220. The word gilik means 'medulla; marrow'. The word was registered in ОТ (in the forms: ilik,jilig) and it has its equivalents in other Turkic languages, in some cases with another meaning, e.g. Tuv. culuk 'juice'; Alt. duluk 'juice of a tree'. The structure of the word shows its derivational character, however ideas on its origin are not homogenous, cf. ESTJa IV 265-266 . gurek (K-B) '1. serdce; 2. per. serdce, dusa' (KBRS 271); giirek (B. dial.: Baks., Ceg., Khul. -Bez.) 'serdce' (Boz. 172); giirek {jurek; K) 'Herz' (Pr К 150); ziirek, ziirex, ziireg {ziirek, ziirex, ziireg; B) 'Herz, Sinn' (Pr В 275) < PT *jiirek (ESG); cf: ОТjiirdk; Кит. jurek, jiirek; Az. iArdk; K\\d.\.jiirak in: jiiruk hagnig,jirdk; Tur., Gag. jiirek; Kar. (Cr.) jiirek, jUrak, (H) jirek, (T) jurak,jurak, iirak; Tat. (Ur.) jiirek; TdA. jUrdk; jordk; (Eg. 324); Cuv. ёёге; Yiask. jiirdk; jordk (Eg. 324); Kaz., Kklp. ziirek; Nog. jiirek, jurek; Kir. giirdk; ziirdk (Eg. 324); Trkm., lvuk\\. jiirek; \Jz. jurdk, jurat. Dig. jiirdk, ziirdk; Lob. jiijek, iijek, iijdk, iirek; Sal. jirdk, jirix; Y. \Jig. jorek, jiirek, jdrik, drek; Alt. d'iirek, jiirek; Khak., Tuv. ciirek; Tof curek; Sor. ciirdk; Yak. siirex. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 41; Doerfer LSCh 151, 318; DTS 286; Eg. 324; ESTJa IV 270; KRPS 245, 260, 262, 263, 590; Malov 122, 182, 183; OjHa. 44; Podolsky 34; Rass. 199; SKT 179; Tenisev SJ 185,186,194. The word giirek 'heart; soul' has its equivalents in other Turkic languages. ОТ sources registered the form jiirdk. Some specialists consider this word as a derivative from the verbal root jiir- 'to go, to move', cf: Eg. 324; Rass. 199; ESTJalV271. guz (K-B) '1. iico; 2. poverxnost" (KBRS 270) < PT *eiis (Sc. SF 197); *;MZ (StachM GJV 139); cf: ОТjuz; Кит. juz; Az. uz; Khal. JMZ; Tur. /WZ; Gag. jUz, Uz; Kar. (Cr.) juz, juz, (H) iz,jiz, (T) jiiz,juz; Tat.ywz; Bask.jHz; Kaz., Kklp. zMz; Nog.yMz; Kir. giiz; Trkm. Trukh. J'MZ; {Jz.jiiz; \J\g.juz; Lob. MZ, UZ, US; Sal. jiz,juz,jiiz,juz; Y. Uig.ywz; Alt. d'iis; Khak. eiis; Yak. siis. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 43; Doerfer LSCh 62, 319; DTS 287; ESTJa iV 259; KRPS 193, 244, 255, 261; Malov 179, 181, 182; OjHa. 44; SKT 179; StachM GJV 139; Sul. Kkar. 75; Sc. SF 197; Tenisev 367, 368, 369; Tenisev SJ 186.

39 The word giiz ' I. face; 2. appearance' has its counterparts in other Turkic languages, in some languages, however, with another meaning, cf. Yak. stis 'forehead'. The ОТ sources register the form juz. icegi (K-B) 'anat. kiska' (KBRS 308); icegi (K) 'Darm' (Pr К 107) < PT *icdk, *icagi (ESG); cf: ОТ icagu-, Kum. icek\ Khal. icat, Kar. (T) icak, (H) kigv. Tat. (Ur.) icet. Tat. icak, Icdgi; Bask. Iscik; Kaz. Isek', Kklp. isek; Trkm. icegi, icege-, Kir. ice, icek, icegi; Uz. icdk; Uig. licdj; Y. Uig. icige, eciki; Alt. icege, icek, icik, Khak. Icege. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 294; DTS 201; ESTJa 1 392; KRPS211;210; Podolsky 11. The word icegi 'intestine' is a sort of derivative from ic 'inside' or *ice- 'to be inside'. It has its equivalents in other Turkic languages, where there are also forms being derivatives formed from either the nominal form ic or the verbal one *ice-. Semantically these equivalents are similar to the K-B word icegi, however in Khal. icdk 'a stone in a fruit'. In ОТ there was the form icdgii. kan (K-B) 'krov' (KBRS 385); кап (В. dial.: Baks., Ceg., Khul. -Bez.) 'id.' (Boz. 177); kan {q'an; K) 'Blut' (Pr К 115); кап {qan; В) 'id.' (Pr В 234) < PT *kan; cf: ОТ кап; Kum. кап; Az. gan; Khal. kan; Tur., Gag., Kar. (Cr., H, T) kan; Tat. (Ur.) xan; Tat. kan; Cu\. jun; Bask, kan; Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. kan; Trkm. gan; Trukh. kan; Uz. kon; Uig. kan; Lob. kan; Sal. kan, kan; Y. Uig. kan, tan; Alt. kan; Khak., Tuv. xan; Tof kan; Yak. xan. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 43; Doerfer LSCh 59, 305; DTS 416; Eg. 349; ESTJa V 251; JUFD 206; KRPS 289, 361; Malov 126; OjHa. 12; Podolsky 28; Rass. 217; SKT 180; StachM GJV 41; Sul. Kkar. 88; Sc. SF 194; Tenisev 460; Tenisev SJ 202. The word kan 'blood' is widespread common among Turkic languages (in some cases it appears in phonetic variants). It was also registered by ОТ sources. karin (K-B) '1. zivot; utroba, crevo, brjuxo; 2. zeludok; 3. sycug; 4. per. jedok, rot; 5. jeda, prodovol'stvije; 6. mexi' (KBRS 397); karin (B. dial.: Ceg., Khul.- Bez.) 'zivot, zeludok' (Boz. 177); karin {qdrin; K) 'Bauch, Leib, Magen' (Pr К 116); karin {qarin; B) 'Bauch, Magen' (Pr В 235) < PT *karin (ESG); cf: ОТ karin; Kum. karin; Az. garin; Khal. karinak, ka'run; Tur., Gag. karin; Kar. (Cr., H, T) karin; Tat. karin; Cuv. xiram; Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. karin; Trkm. garin; Uz. korin; Uig. kerin; karin (JUFD 207); Lob. kain; Sal. karin, karin, t'arin; Y. Uig. karin; Alt. karin; Khak. xarin; Tuv. xirin; Tof hirin; Sor. karin; Yak. xarin. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 50, 306; DTS 427; Eg. 314; ESTJa V 321; JUFD 207; KRPS 295, 365; OjHa. 10; Rass. 193; Tenisev 376, 467. The word karin 'stomach; womb' was registered in ОТ and it has its equivalents at present in other Turkic languages. There are two conceptions concerning the etymology of the word. The first one assumes its derivational development < kar 'womb' + suf -in. The other compares Turkic karin with Mongolian qarbiij, cf ESTJa V 321-322 .

40 kas (К-В) 1. 'brov' (KBRS 405); 2. 'luka (sedla)' (ibid. 405); kas (B. dial.: Bai<.s ., Ceg.) 'brov' (Boz. 178); kas {q^'as-, K) 'Augenbraue, auch Satlel- kopF (Pr К 116); kas {qay, B) 'Augenbraue; Sattelkopf (Pr В 235) < PT *kas\ cf.: ОТ kas-, Kum. kay, Az. gas\ Khal. kas', Tur., Gag. kas\ Kar. (Cr., T) kas, (H) kas- . Tat. (Ur.) xav; Tat. kas-, Cuv. xarsa'. Bask, kas', Kaz., Kklp., Nog. kas-, Kir. kas-, Trkm. gas-, Uz. kos', Uig. kas- . Lob. kas', Alt. kas-, Khak. xas-, Tof. xas-, Sor. kas- . Yak. xas. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 46, 306; DTS 431; Eg. 287; ESTJa V 343; KRPS 296, 299, 367; Malov 127; OjHa. 12; Podolsky 28; Sc. SF 194. The word kas ' I. eyebrow; 2. saddle-bow' is also known in other Turkic languages, where in some of them it appears in different phonetic variants. The ОТ sources registered the form kas. In Cuv. in word xarsa there is epenthetic -r- . kil {q4l-, K) 'Haar' (Pr К I 18) < PT cf: ОТ kil, Az. git, Khal. kil-, Tur. kil-, Kar. (Cr., H) kil. Tat. kil, Cuv. хё1ёх-. Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. kil, Trkm. gil, Trukh. kil, Uz. kil, kil (Eg. 297); Uig. kil, kil (Eg. 297); Lob., Alt. kil, Khak., Tuv. xil, Tof hil. Yak. kil - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 49, 306; DTS 442; Eg. 297; KRPS 379, 385; Malov 132; OjHa. 28; Rass. 192; SKT 180; StachM GJV 94; Sc. SF 194. The lexeme kil 'hair' in other Turkic languages is known with two meanings: ' 1. horse hair; 2. string', in ОТ sources the word has been confirmed. kindik (K-B) 'I. pupok, pup, pupovina; 2. per. centr' (KBRS 347); kindik (B. dial.: Balk., Ceg.) 'pupok' (Boz. 175); kindik {k^indit, K) 'Nabel' (Pr К 110); kindik, kindix, kindig (kindik, kindix, kindig-, B) 'id.' (Pr В 229) < PT *kin (Sc. SF 195); *kin(-tik) (Ras. VEWT 271 a); cf: ОТ kindit, kin-, Kum. kindik', Khal. kindiik, kimdiit, Tur. dial, kindit, Kar. (Cr., H, T) kindit. Tat. kindit, kendek (Eg. 105); Cuv. kentit. Bask, kindit, kendek (Eg. 105); Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. kindit, Uz. kindik, kinddt, Uig. kindit, Sal. gindix, kintix, kinsix-, Y. Uig. kin, kendek, kindit, Alt. kin, kindit, Khak. kin, kindit, Tuv. xin, xindit, Tof hin-, Sor. kindit. Yak. kin. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 50, 297; DTS 307, 308; Eg. 105; ESTJa V 68; KRPS 320; Rass. 188; Ras. VEWT 271 a; Sc. SF 195; Tenisev 383. The word kindik ' I. navel, navel-string; 2. Jig. centre' has also its equivalents in other Turkic languages. Rasanen (Ras. VEWT 271 a) assumes the common origin of both forms kin, kindik, however according to ESTJa V 69, the etymology of kin is vague. In ОТ both forms kindik and kin are registered. kirpik (K-B) 'resnica' (KBRS 349); kirfik, kirfix, kerfig {kirfik, kirfix, kerfig-, B) 'Augenwimper' (Pr В 229) < PT *kirpik (ESQ); cf: ОТ kirpit, Kum., Az. kirpit, Khal. kirpiik, kipruk, kirpriik, kigirptit, Tur., Gag., Kar. (Cr., H, T) kirpit. Tat. kirfit, kerfek (Eg. 294); Cuv. xarpdt. Bask, kirpit, kerpek (Eg. 294); Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir., Trkm. kirpit, Uz. kiprit, Uig. ki(r)pik, kizpit. Lob. kipit, Y. Uig. kirmik, kirmik, tirmik, kermit, Alt. kirbit, Khak. tirbit, Tuv. kirbik.

41 -Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 45, 297; DTS 309; Eg. 294; ESTJa V 74; KRPS 323; Malov 136; Ras.VEWT 272 b. The word kirpik 'eyelash' was registered in ОТ. At present it has its counterparts in other Turkic languages, its structure shows its derivational character, perhaps < *kirp- 'to blink' (cf. ESTJa V 75). kojun (K-B) 1. 'i. pazuxa; 2. grud". 2. '1. izgib, okruglenie, vognutosf; 2. ruslo, pojma' (KBRS 419); kijjun (B. dial.: Baks., Balk.) 'pazuxa, lono, ruslo, mesto pod myskami, zaliv, objatie' (Boz. 179); kojun {q'ojun-, K) 'Schooss' (Pr К 119) < FT *kdj; cf.: ОТ kojun, kojin, koj, kon\ Kum. kojun; Az. gojun\ Tur. bjun- Kar. (Cr., H) kojun, (T) kojun, kojin-. Tat. {{Jr.) xojun'. Tat. kujen; Cuv. x<?v, ХЩ Bask, kujin-, Kaz., Kklp., Nog. kojin', Kir. kojur,-, Trkm. gojun', Uz. kiijin', Uig. kojun; Lob. kojni-, Sal. kojn, kon; Y. Uig. kojin, kojen; Alt. (V) kojin; Khak. xojm. xojm-, Tuv. xoj-, Tof. ho^; Yak. xoj, xdjin. - Lit.: DTS 453, 455; Eg. 297; KRPS 329, 369; Malov 128; Podolsky 30; Rass. 189; Sc. SF 194; Temsev 386, 388, 464;TenisevSJ 200. The word kojun '1. bosom; 2. breast; 3. embrace' has its equivalents in other Turkic languages where there are some phonetic variants of this lexeme. In ОТ the following forms were registered: kojun, kojin, koj, kon. kol (K-B) 'I. ruka; kist'; 2. rucka, rukojatka; 3. podpis; 4. pocerk, ruka' (KBRS 409); kol (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg., Kash., Khul. -Bez.) 'ruka' (Boz. 178); kol {cfol, K) 'Hand' (Pr К 119); kol (qol; B) 'id.' (Pr 238) < PT Hoi {4ol ?) (Sc. SF 194); cf.: ОТ kol; Kum. kol; Az. gol; Khal. ko'i, Tur. kol; Kar. (Cr., H, T) Ы; Tat. (Ur.) xol; Tat. kul; Cuv. xul; Bask, kul; Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. kol; Trkm. gol; Trukh. kol; Uz. kCil; Uig. kol; Lob. kol, kul; Sal. kol; Y. Uig. kol kul; Alt kol; Khak., Tuv. xol; Tof. kol; Yak. xol. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 44; Doerfer LSCh 53 155 306; DTS 453; Eg. 303; KRPS 329, 369; Malov 128, 130; Podolsky 30: Rass. 220; Ras. VEWT 276 b; SKT 180; Sul. Kkar. 89; Sc. SF 194; Tenisev 464; Tenisev SJ 200. The lexeme kol 'hand' is registered both in ОТ and in modern T. languages (in some phonetic variants). In Khal. apart from the common meaning i.e. 'hand' the word also denotes 'sleeve'. kokurek (K-B) '1. grud'; 2. grud'(zenskaja), molocnaja zeleza; Ъ. рег. samouverennost', samomnenie' (KBRS 339); kokurek (B. dial.: Balk., Ceg.) 'grud^ (Boz. 176); kokrek (k'dkrek; K) 'Brust' (Pr К 111); kokrek, kokrex, kokreg ikokrek, kcikrex, kokreg; B) 'Brust, Busen' (Pr В 230) < PT Чдкигек (ESG) < *kdkiz; cf.: ОТ kokiiz; Kum. kokurek, kokurek; Tur. gogiis, kokrek (DS); Gag. giis; Kar. (Cr.) kokrek, (H) kekrek, (T) liokrak; Tat. kiikrdk; Cuv. kdkdr; Bask. kukrdk; Kaz. kokrek, kokirek; Kklp. kokrek, koklrek; Nog. kokirek, kiikirek; Kir. kokiirok; Trkm. kukrek; Uz. kokrak; kukrak (Eg. 98); Uig. kdkrdk; Lob. kokiiz, kokus; Sal. kuprdx, kd'pfrix; Y. Uig. gos; Alt. (V) kogtis; Khak. kogis; Tuv. xorek;

42 Sor. kugus- . Yak. kdgus. - Lit.: DTS 313; Eg. 98; ESTJa V 136; KRPS 301, 313, 337; Malov 136, 137; Ras. VEWT 288 b; StachM GJV 110; Tenisev 393, 398. The word kokurek 'breast' has its counterparts in several Turkic languages (Tur. dial., Kum., Kar., Tat., Bask., Cuv., Kaz., Kir., Trkm., Uz., Dig., Sal.) . However in the following languages: Khak., Alt., Son, Yak., neither the lexeme kokiirek nor its variants exist. Nevertheless, the word kukiirek with its variants and some forms of the word kogUs ~ kokiz are so semantical ly close that we must assume their common origin though different development. In ОТ sources the form kokuz has been confirmed. kot (K-B) 'grub. 1. zad, zadnica, zadnij proxod; 2. zad, zadniaja storona' (KBRS 344); kot {¥dl\ K) 'der After, die Schamteile' (Pr К 1 11) < PT *kdf, cf.: ОТ kof, Az. gov, Khal. kof, Tur., Gag. gof, Kar. (Cr.) kot (H) Kef, Tat. (Cr.) got, kot: Tat. (Ur.) k()t'. Tat. (Kaz.) kiit", Cuv. kut', Bas. kiit', Kaz., Nog. kot", Kklp. kot', Kir. kof, Uz. ket, kuf, Alt. kodon, kot. - Lit.: Bask. NJa. 249; Doerfer LSCh 53, 298; DTS 319; Eg. 121; ESTJa III 84; KRPS 309,340; Podolsky 13; StachM GJV 66. The lexeme kot 'buttocks' was registered in ОТ; at present it has its equivalents in several other Turkic languages (generally with the same meaning as in K-B). koz (K-B) '1. giaz, око; 2. zrenie; 3. vzgliad, vzor; 4. durnoj giaz, sgiaz; 5. per. otverstie, prousina, glazok' (KBRS 336); koz (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg., Khul.- Bez.) 'giaz' (Boz. 176); koz {toz- K) 'Auge' (Pr К 1 1 1); koz (B) 'id.' (Pr В 231) < PT *kds; cf.: ОТ koz-, Kum. goz] Az. gdz; Khal. ko z; Tur., Gag. goz; Kar. (Cr.) goz, koz, (H) kez, (T) koz; Tat. (Cr.) Koz, goz, gdz. Tat. (Ur.) koz; Tat. kuz; Cuv. kus; Bask, kiiz; Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. koz; Trkm. goz; Uz. koz; kuz (Eg. 120); Uig. koz; Lob. koz; Sal. Koz, koz, kHz; Y. Uig. koz; Alt. kos, koz; Khak. kos; Sor. kos. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 43; Doerfer LSCh 45, 298; DTS 320-321; Eg. 120; ESTJa 111 60; KRPS 161, 300, 312, 336; Malov 136; Podolsky 13; Sul. Kkar. 80; Sc. SF 195; Tenisev 391, 394, 398; Tenisev SJ 187. The lexeme koz 'eye' is widely known among other Turkic languages, where it appears in various phonetic forms; ОТ sources also registered it. kulak (K-B) '1. uxo; 2. slux' (KBRS 421); kulak (B. dial.: Ceg.) 'uxo' (Boz. 179); kulak {q'uldq; K) 'Ohr' (Pr К 120); kulak, kulax, kulag (qulciq, quldx, quldy; B) 'das Ohr' (Pr В 240) < PT *kulkak; cf.: ОТ kulag, kulak, kulgak, kulkak, kulxak; Az. gulag; Khal. kula k; Tur. kulak; Kar. (Cr., H) kulak, (T) kulax; Tat. (Ur.) xulax; Tat. kolak; Cuv. xdlxa; Bask, kolak; Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. kulak; Trkm. gulak; Uz. kulok; Uz. (S), Uig., Lob. kulak; Sal. kulax; Y. Uig. kulak, t'ulak; Alt. kulak; Khak. xulax; Tuv., Tof. kulak; Yak. kulgdx. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 44; Doerfer LSCh 46, 307; DTS 465; Eg. 291; KRPS 345, 374; Malov 130; OjHa. 39; Podolsky 30; Rass. 222; StachM GJV 49, 117; Sul. Kkar. 91; Tenisev 395, 465; Tenisev SJ 201,204.

43 The lexeme kulak 'ear' is widely known in other Turicic languages. In some other T. languages it appears in various phonetic forms. ОТ sources registered the folowing forms: kulag, kulak, kulgak, kulkak, kiilxak. As far as its etymology is concerned the problem is still under discussion, cf. Eg. 291; StachM GJV 49-50. kursak (K-B) 'zivot' (KBRS 425); kursak {q'ursdq-, B) 'Bauch' (Pr К 121) < PT *kursak (ESG); cf.: ОТ kurugsak] Az. kursax; Tur. kursak; Kar. (Cr, H) kursak, (T) kursax; Tat. (Ur.) xursax; Kaz. kursak; Nog. kursak; Uig. kursak; Lob. kujsak, kojsak; Y. Uig. korskak; Yak. kurtax, kuttax. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 44; Bask. NJa. 252; DTS 470; KRPS 347, 348, 375; Malov 128, 130; Podolsky 31; Ras. VEWT 303 b; YRh. 687. The K-B word kursak 'stomach, belly' has its equivalents in several other Turkic languages not only with the above mentioned meaning but also with the meaning 'claw of a bird', e.g. Tur. kursak. in ОТ sources the form kurugsak was registered. The structure of the word shows its compound character, but no sources have presented its etymology. miji (K-B) 'I. mozg; 2. um, rassudok, soznanie' (KBRS 474); mijis (B. dial.: Balk.) 'mozg' (Boz. 180); miji (miji; K) 'Gehirn' (Pr К 123); mijis (B) 'id.' (Pr В 243) < PT *bdfji; cf.: ОТ me^d, meji, meiji, miji; Kum. mij; Az. hejin; Tur. bejin; Kar. (Cr., H, T) mij; Tat. (Ur.) mij; Tat. mi; Tat. (Cr.) mdy; Cuv. mime, vime, nime, mime; Bask, miji; meje (Eg. 134); Kaz. mij; Kklp. mij(e); Nog. mij; Kir. me; Trkm. bejni; Uz. mija; Uig. mejd, miijd; Lob. megd; Alt. me; Khak. mi, mis; Tuv. me; Tof. me; Sor. mis; Yak. meji. - Lit.: Bask. JpU 44; DTS 340, 341, 342; Eg. 134; ESTJa П 106; Gab. 319; KRPS 406; Rass. 207; Ras. VEWT 70 a. A widely common word among Turkic languages denoting 'brain' in K- B has the form miji, in B. dialect mijis. in other Turkic languages there are many various form of this word. In ОТ sources the following forms were registered: me^d, meji, meiji, miji. mlijik (K-B) '1. usy; 2. redko ost" (KBRS 475); mijik {mijfq; K) 'Schnurrbart' (Pr К 123); mijik, mijix, m'ljig (mijiq, mijix, mijiy; B) 'id.' (Pr В 243) < PT *hi6ik; cf.: ОТ bidik; Kum. mijik; Az. big; Tur., Gag. bijik; Kar. (Cr.) mijik, (H) mijuk, (T) mijix; Tat. (Cr.) mijik, bijik; Tat. mijik; mijek (Eg. 130); Cuv. mdjdx; Bask., Kklp., Nog., Kir. mijik; Uz. mijik; Lob. mujut, murut, bujut, bund; Alt. mijik; Yak. bifik. - Lit.: DTS 105; Eg. 130; ESTJa II 304; KRPS 407, 413; Malov 96, 145; Ras. VEWT 73 b; StachM GJV 93. The word mijik 'moustache' has its equivalents in some other Turkic languages. In MK the form: biSik was registered. opke (K-B) 'liogkoje' (KBRS 279); арке {dpte; K) 'Lunge' (Pr К 127) < PT *dpkd (ESG); cf: ОТ dwkd, opka (Gab.); dpkd (DTS); Kum. opke; Tur. dfke; dial, opke; Gag. iifka; Kar. (Cr.) opke, (H) epke, (T) opka; Tat. iipkd; Tat.

44 (Cr.) ofke\ Cuv. upke\ Bask, iipkci-, Kaz. dkpe\ Nog. dpke', Kklp. opke, dkpe\ Kir. opko", Trkm. djkerr, Uz. opka\ upka (Eg. 280); Dig. opka', Sal. dhken, ii'en; Y. Dig. dkpe,jurkpe\ Alt. okpo", Khak. dkpe\ Tuv. dkpe-, Sor. dkpe. - Lit.: DTS 387, 388; Eg. 280; ESTJa I 540; Gab. 324; KRPS 442, 664; Ras. VEWT 373 a; YRh. 906. In K-B opke denotes 'lungs'. In other Turkic languages there are equivalents of the word in some cases denoting 'anger, rage', cf. Tur. ufke. In some other languages there are probably homonyms, cf.: Kar. (Cr.) opke 'anger', 'lungs'. Such a semantic situation was also registered in ОТ, cf: opke 1. 'lungs'; 2. 'anger' (DTS 387, 388). ot (K-B) '1. ziolc; 2. per. smelost', xrabrost" (KBRS 281); ot (K) 'Galle' (Pr К 127); ot (B) 'id.' (Pr В 248) < PT *d7; cf: OT of, Kum. of, Az. od, Tur. of, Gag.yo/; Kar. (Cr.) ot, (H) otu, et, (T) of, of. Tat. (Cr.) of-. Tat. uf, Cuv. vaf. Bask. iif, Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. of, Trkm. of, Uz. of, ut (Eg. 47); Uig. ot; Sal. ot; Y. Uig. dt,jdt; Alt. ot; Khak. ut, ot, ot; Tuv. 6t; Tof ot; Yak. iios. - Lit.: DTS 391; Eg. 47; ESTJa I 504; KRPS 435, 444, 671; Rass. 215; StachM GJV 91; Sc. SF 195. The lexeme ot 'gall' was registered in OT. In other Turkic languages there are some equivalents of the word. sakal (K-B) '1. boroda; 2. podborodok' (KBRS 534); sakal (B. dial.: Baks., Ceg., Kask.) 'boroda' (Boz. 182); sakal (saq'al; K) 'Bart' (Pr К 129); sakal {saqal; B) 'id.' (Pr В 250) < PT * sakal (ESG); cf: OT sakal; Az. sa^^al; Khal. sakkal; Tur. sakal; Kar. (Cr.) sakal, (H) sagal, (T) sakal, sagal; Tat. (Ur.) saxal; Tat. sakal; Cuv. suxal; Bask, hakal; Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. sakal; Trkm. sakgal; Uz. sokol; Uig., Lob. sakal; Sal. sagal; Alt. (V) sagal; Khak. sagal; Tuv. sal; Tof sahal. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 48, 308; DTS 486; Eg. 198; KRPS 456, 460, 461; Malov 158; Podolsky 19; Rass. 224; Ras. VEWT 396 a; Tenisev 470. The word sakal ' 1. beard; 2. chin' has in other Turkic languages its equivalents (in some of them changed phonetically). The word was also confirmed in OT. sirt (K-B) '1. spina; 2. plato, ploskogofje' (KBRS 586); sirt (B. dial.: Baks., Balk., Ceg., Khul. - Bez.) 'spina, stolb pozvonocnyj, ploskogofje' (Boz. 183); sirt {sirt; K) 'Ruzken, Ruckgrat, Bergriicken' (Pr К 132); sirt (sirt; B) 'Rucken, Ruckgrat' (Pr В 253) < PT *sirt; cf: OT sirt; Az. sirt; Tur. sirt; Kar. (Cr.) sirt; Tat. sirt; Cuv. sdrt; Kaz., Kir., Nog. sirt; Uig. sirt; Alt. (V) sirt; Khak. sirt. - Lit.: Bask. NJa. 261; DTS 505; Eg. 184; KRPS 495; Ras. VEWT 419b; Sc. SF 196; YRh. 1014. The lexeme sirt ' 1. back; 2. ridge (of a mountain); 3. plateau' was registered in OT. At present it is also registered in several other Turkic languages (in Cuv. in phonetic variant). siqir (K-B) 'zila, suxozilije' (KBRS 561); siyyir (K) 'Sehne, Muskel' (Pr К 132); siijrfir, siygir (si^ijir, siijgir; B) 'id.' (Pr В 252) < PT *sii]ir (ESG); cf:

45 ОТ siijir, Kum. singir; Tur. sinir; Tat. seijer; Cuv. sdnar; Bask, herjer, Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. siijir, Trkm. siyir, Uz. singir; Dig. sitjir; Alt. (V) si^ir; Khak. sir; Tuv. sir; Tof. sfr; Yak. iijir. - Lit.: DTS 500; Eg. 334; OjHa. 33; Rass. 227; Ras. VEWT 423 a. The word siijir 'vein; nerve' was registered in ОТ and at present it has equivalents in other Turkic languages. sujek (K-B) 'I. kosf. 2 . staf, teloslozenije' (KBRS 587); sujek (B. dial.: Balk., Ceg., Khul. -Bez.) 'kosf (Boz. 184); siijek {sujek; K) 'Knochen' (Pr К 133); sujek, siijex, siijeg {siijek, siijex, siijeg; B) 'id.' (Pr В 254) < PT *soijgdk; cf.: ОТ sdijUk; siiijtik (Gab.); Kum. siijek; Az. siimiik; Tur. siimiik; Kar. (Cr.) siijek, sujak, siivek, (H) sivek, (T) suvak; Tat. (Ur.) siijek; Tat. sdjak; Cuv. samd, dial.: sand; Bask, hdjdk; Kaz., Kklp., Nog. siijek; Kir. s8k; Trkm. siiijk; Uz. sujak; Uig. sdijdk, siifjdk, siijdk; Lob. sonok; Sal. senix, sen'ix, sinex, sinix, s'in'ix; Y. Uig. sumik, sumuk; Alt. s3k; Khak. sok; Tuv. sok; Tof. sok; Yak. uijuox, umuox. - Lit.: DTS 511; Eg. 333; Gab. 335; KRPS 472, 483, 485, 486, 501; Malov 163; Podolsky 21; Rass. 228; Ras. VEWT 437 a; Sul. Kkar. 97; Tenisev 479, 480, 482, 492; Tenisev SJ 207; YRh. 1039. The word siijek 'bone' has equivalents in many Turkic languages generally with the same meaning, however in literary Tur. siimiik 'mucus (of the nose)'. In ОТ the forms sdijiik, siiyiik were registered. sut (K-B) 'moloko' (KBRS 592); sut (B. dial.: Baks., Khul. - Bez.) 'id.' (Boz. 184); sUt (K) 'Milch' (Pr К 133); sut (B) 'id.' (Pr В 254) < PT *sm; cf.: ОТ siit; Kum. siit; Az. siid; Khal. sUt; Tur., Gag., siit; Kar. (Cr.) siit, (H) sit, (T) A ' W/ ' ; Tat. (Ur.) siit; Tat. sot; Cuv. set; Bask, hot; Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. siit; Trkm. siijt; Uz. sut; Uig., Lob. siit; Sal. siit, siit, sif; Y. Uig. siit, sot; Alt., Khak., Tuv. sut; Tof sut; Yak. Ш. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 145, 311; DTS 518; Eg. 189; KRPS 476, 487, 502; Malov 165; OjHa. 44; Podolsky 21; Rass. 229; StachM GJV 139; Sc. SF 196; Tenisev 490; Tenisev SJ 208. The lexeme siit 'milk' is common in other Turkic languages, where in some of them it appears in phonetic variants. The word was registered also in ОТ. taban (K-B) '1. anat. pjatka; 2. stupnja, noga; 3. kabluk' (KBRS 593); taban (B. dial.: Balk.) 'kabluk, pjatka' (Boz. 184); taban {faban; K) 'Absatz' (Pr К 135); taban {taban; B) 'Absatz, Ferse' (Pr В 255) < PT *tapan (Ras. VEWT 462b); *tdban (StachM GJV 43); cf.: ОТ taban; Kum. taban; Az. daban; Khal. tapa n; Tur., Gag., Kar. (Cr., H, T), Tat. (Cr.), Tat. taban; Cuv. tupan; Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog. taban; Kir. taman; Trkm. daban; Uz. towon; Uig. tapan; Y. Uig. tawan; Alt. taman; Khak. taban; Tuv. dawan; Sor. taban; cf: Yak. taman '1. Anfang, Wurzel. 2. Seitenfett der Pferde' (StachM GJV 43). - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 57, 312; DTS 525; Eg. 258; ESTJa 111 110; KRPS 502; Ras. VEWT 462 b; StachM GJV 43.

46 The word taban 'sole; heel' was registered in ОТ sources. At present it has equivalents in other Turkic languages. talak (K-B) 'selezionka' (KBRS 598); talak (B. dial.: Balk.) 'id.' (Boz. 184); talak, talax, talag {lalaq, laldx, taldy; B) 'Milz' (Pr В 256) < PT *lalak (ESG) < *tal (Sc. SF 197); cf.: ОТ tal, talak; Kum. talak; Az. dalak; Khal. tala k; Tur. dalak; Gag. dalak; Kar. (Cr., H) talak, (T) talax; Tat. talak; Cuv. talak (< Tat.); Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. talak; Trkm. dalak; Uz. talok; Sal. talix; Yak. tal. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 52, 312; DTS 528; Eg. 229; ESTJa 111 137; KRPS 507, 508; Ras. VEWT457 b; Sc. SF 197; Tenisev 500. The word talak 'spleen; milt' in ОТ registered in forms: talak, tal. It has also its equivalents in other Turkic languages. Some specialists analize the compound structure of the word, where tal should be the older form confirmed already in Middle Turkic (DTS 528) and Yakut. The character of the suffix -ak in talak is still debated, cf ESTJa 111 137-138. tamak (K-B) '1. garlo, glotka, gortan; 2. golos; 3. redko tupaja storona (noza, bitvy, kosy)' (KBRS 600); tamak (B. dial.: Balk., Ceg.) 'gorlo' (Boz. 185); tamak {t^'amaq; K) 'Kehle, Schlund' (Pr К 136); tamak, tamax, tamag {tamdq, tamdx, tamdy; B) 'die Mundhohle, der Gaumen' (Pr В 256) < PT *tdmgdk, *tamak; cf.: ОТ tamag, tamak, tamgak; Kum. tamak; Az. damak; Tur., Gag. damak; Kar. (Cr., H) tamak, (T) tamax, tamag; Tat., Cuv., Bask., Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. tamak; Trkm. damak; Uz. tomok; Uig. tamgak, tamak; Lob. damak, tamak; Alt. tamak; Khak. tamax; Sor. tamak; tabak (Ras. VEWT 460 b); Yak. tamax. - Lit.: DTS 529, 530; ESTJa III 141; Gab. 337; JUFD 235; KRPS 509; Malov 168; Ras. VEWT 460 b. Tamak' 1. throat; palate; larynx' has equivalents in other Turkic languages. In some of them the meaning is different, e.g.: Kir., Kaz., Kklp., Nog. tamak 'food'; Kar. (T) tamag 'straits'. In ОТ registered forms: tamag, tamak, tamgak. ter (K-B) 'pot, isparina' (KBRS 622); ter (B. dial.: Balk.) 'pot' (Boz. 185); ter {t'er; K) 'Schweiss' (Pr К 138); ter (B) 'id.' (Pr В 258) < PT *tar; cf: ОТ ter; Kum. ter; Az. ddr, tar; Khal. tar; Tur., Gag. ter; Kar. (Cr., H) ter, (T) fer; Tat. (Cr., Ur.) ter; Tat. tir; Cuv. tar; Bask, tir; Kaz., Kklp., Nog., Kir. ter; Trkm. der; Uz. ter; Uig. ta(r); Sal. t^er, ter; Alt. ter; Khak. tir; Tuv. der; Sor ter; cf. Yak. tirit- 'schwitzen' (StachM GJV 63). - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 312; DTS 553; Eg. 231; ESTJa III 203; KRPS 521, 565; Podolsky 23; StachM GJV 63; Sc. SF 197; Tenisev 508. The lexeme ter 'sweat' was registered in ОТ. It is known in some phonetic variants in other Turkic languages. Egorov suggests its Persian origin, cf. Eg. 231. tcri (K-B) 'I. koza, skura; 2. тех' (KBRS 623); teri (B. dial.: Balk., Kas.) 'id.' (Boz. 185); teri {t'eri; K) 'Haut' (Pr К 138) < PT *tarig; cf: teri

47 (МК); Kum. terv, Az. dcirv, Khal. tcirv, Tur., Gag. derr, Kar. (Cr., H) (eh, (T) terv. Tat. (Cr., Ur.) terv. Tat. tirv, tire (Eg. 252); Cuv. tir. Bask, tin; tire (Eg. 252); Kaz., Nog., Kklp., Kir. teri; Trkm. deri; Uz. teri; Uig. teri, terd; Lob. terd, tejd, tej; Sal. tir, Y. Uig. t^'er, tere, terd; Alt. tere; Khak. ter, tirv, Tof. tere] Sor. tere; Yak. tdri-tirl. - Lit.: Doerfer LSCh 73, 313; DTS 554; Eg. 252; ESTJa III 207; KRPS 522, 566; Malov 170, 172; OjHa. 27; Podolsky 23; Rass. 234; StachM GJV 62; Tenisev 511; Tenisev SJ 216. The K-B teri' 1. skin; 2. fur' registered by MK at present has equivalents in other Turkic languages. til (K-B) '1. jazyk; 2. jazyk; rec; slog jazykovoj, recevoj; 3. donos; spletnja; 4. jazyk; 5. borod